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Wake Frequency

Wake Frequency

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Published by: Sri on Jul 27, 2009
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09/23/2010

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Technical Data Sheet 
TD-TM/WFPA
Wake Frequency Problems
Temperature Measurement 
Whenfluidflowspastathermowellinsertedintoapipeor duct, vorticies form at both sides of the well. Thesevorticies detach, first from one side, and then from theother. This phenomenon is known as the VonKarmann effect. The frequency of shedding of thesevorticesisafunctionofthediameterofthethermowell,the fluid velocity and, to a lesser extent, the Reynoldsnumber. Thevortexsheddingsubjectsthethermowellto a periodic transverse force. As the vortex sheddingfrequency approaches the natural frequency of thethermowell,thethermowellwilloscillate,andisliabletosnapoff. (Thenaturalfrequencyofthethermowellisafunction of its shape and material of manufacture.)The Von Karmann effect must be taken into accountwhen designing thermowells of sufficient strength towithstand service conditions, and generallythermowells are chosen such that the sheddingfrequency is always less than or equal to 80% of thenaturalfrequency.
Theory 
1001251501752002252502753003253503754004254504755005255505756006256506757007257502 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40
     T     h    e     r    m    o     w    e      l     l      L    e     n    g       t      h     (      m    m     )  
Fluid Velocity (m/s)
Fabricated Thermowells - Parallel Profile
½” NB sch 40 Pipe11 mm OD x 7 mm ID
1251501752002252502753003253503754004254504755005255505756006256506757007257507752 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40
Fluid Velocity (m/s)
     T     h    e     r    m    o     w     e      l     l      L    e     n    g       t      h     (      m    m     )  
26 mm x 20 mm x 6.2 mm20 mm x 16 mm x 6.2 mm
Solid Drilled Thermowells - Tapered Profile
Fluid Velocity (m/s)
1251501752002252502753003253503754004254504755005255505756006256506757002 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40
Solid Drilled Thermowells - Parallel Profile
     T     h    e     r    m    o     w     e      l     l      L    e     n    g       t      h     (      m    m     )  
20 mm OD x 6.2 mm ID16 mm OD x 6.2 mm ID
The graphs here show the maximum lengths possiblefor a given process velocity for a variety of popular thermowell designs. All graphs assume thethermowell material to be 316 Stainless Steel, at anoperatingtemperatureof20ºC. Fordifferentmaterialsandprocesstemperatures,acorrectionfactormustbeapplied,asdeterminedfromthegraphshownoverleaf.These graphs are intended for guidance only, and if indoubt,aformalcalculationshouldbecompleted.Pleasecontactoursalesdepartmentforfurtherdetails,and for specific calculations which are not catered for here.Note that the Thermocouple Instruments Ltd softwarepackage for solving wake frequency problems,WFCalc, is available for purchase. Please refer todatasheetTM-SW/WFCA.
GraphsExample
What is the maximum length of a 20 mm diameter  parallel profile thermowell, with 6.2 mm bore, in Monel 400, given that the fluid velocity is 6 ms and theoperatingtemperatureis300ºC? 
-1
Fromthegraph,themaximumlengthofthethermowellis 400 mm. The correction factor, from the graphoverleaf is 0.94. The actual maximum length is givenby37694.0400L
ma x
=´=
mm

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