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CHAPTER 2
SET THEORY
Set theory is the branch of mathematicsthat studiessets,which are collections of objects. Although any type of object can be collected into a set, set theory isapplied most often to objects that are relevant to mathematics. The modern study of set theory was initiated byCantorandDedekindin the 1870s. After the discovery of paradoxesin informal set theory, numerousaxiom  systemswere proposed in the early twentieth century, of which theZermelo–Fraenkel axioms, with theaxiom of choice,are the best-known.  The language of set theory is used in the definitions of nearly all mathematicalobjects, such asfunctions, and concepts of set theory are integrated throughoutthe mathematics curriculum. Elementary facts about sets and set membershipcan be introduced in primary school, along withVenn diagrams, to studycollections of commonplace physical objects. Elementary operations such as setunion and intersection can be studied in this context. More advanced conceptssuch ascardinalityare a standard part of the undergraduate mathematicscurriculum.Set theory, formalized usingfirst-order logic, is the most common foundationalsystem for mathematics. Beyond its use as a foundational system, set theory is abranch of mathematicsin its own right, with an active research community.Contemporary research into set theory includes a diverse collection of topics,ranging from the structure of thereal numberline to the study of the consistencyof large cardinals.
1.NULL SET
In mathematicalsets, the null set, also called the empty set, is the set that doesnot contain anything. It is symbolized or { }. There is only one null set. This isbecause there is logically only one way that a set can contain nothing. The null set makes it possible to explicitly define the results of operations oncertain sets that would otherwise not be explicitly definable. The intersection of two disjoint sets (two sets that contain no elements in common) is the null set.For example:{1, 3, 5, 7, 9, ...} {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, ...} =
2.SINGLETON SET
Asethavingexactly oneelement . A singleton set is denoted by and is the simplest example of anonempty set.
3.FINITE SETFinite sets
are sets that has a finite number of members. If the elements of afinite set are listed one after another, the process will eventually “run out” of elements to list.

SET THEORY
ALGEBRA
Example:
A
= {0, 2, 4, 6, 8, …, 100}
C
= {
x
:
x
is an integer, 1 <
x
< 10}
4.
INFINITE SET
An
infinite set
is a set which is not finite. It is not possible to explicitly list out allthe elements of an infinite set.
Example:
T =
{
x
:
x
is a triangle}
N
is the set of natural numbers
A
is the set of fractions
5.
EQUAL SETS:
Two sets are equal if they contain the
same identical elements
. If two setshave only the same number of elements, then the two sets are One-to-Onecorrespondence. Equal sets are One-to-One correspondence but correspondencesets are not always equal sets.
Example:
Which of the following sets are equal and which ones are One-to-Onecorrespondence ?A = {a , f , j , q }B = {1, 2, 3, 5, 8}C = {x, y,z, w}D = {8, 1, 3, 5, 2}Solution:B and D are equal. They have identical elements.A and C are One-to-One correspondence or matching sets. Each set has 4elements. They have the same number of elements but not the same elements.B and D are One-to-One correspondence and equal sets. They have the sameidentical elements.
6.
SUBSET
A subset is a portion of aset. is a subset of (written )iff every member of  is a member of . If is aproper subsetof (i.e., a subset other than the setitself), this is written . If is not a subset of , this is written . (Thenotation is generally not used, since automatically means that andcannot be the same.)Some important results on subset1.Every set is a subset of itself.2.Every set has empty set as its subset.
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SET THEORY
ALGEBRA
3.
Total number of subsets of a set having
n
enements is 2
n
.
7.
UNIVERSAL SET
A set fixed within the framework of a theory and consisting of all objectsconsidered in this theory. The complement of the universal set is theempty set.
8.POWER SET
Inmathematics, the
power set
of a set
S
is thesetof allsubsetsof
S
. Thecardinalityof the power set of
S
given
S
is finite is equal to 2
n
, where
n
is thecardinality of
S
.
9.VENN DIAGRAMSVenn diagrams
or
set diagrams
arediagramsthat show all hypotheticallypossiblelogicalrelations between a finite collection of sets(groups of things). Venn diagrams were conceived around 1880 by John Venn. They are used inmany fields, includingset theory,probability, logic,statistics, andcomputer science.
1.UNION OF SETS
The
union
of two sets
A
and
B
is the set of elements, which are in
A
or
in
B
or
inboth. It is denoted by
A
B
and is read ‘
A
union
B
Example :
Given U
=
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10}
X
= {1, 2, 6, 7} and
= {1, 3, 4, 5, 8}Find
X
and draw a Venn diagram to illustrate
X
.
Solution:
X
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} ←1 is written only once.
2.INTERSECTION OF SETS.
he intersection of
A
and
B
is written "
A
B
". Formally:
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