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DC Motor Speed Controller

DC Motor Speed Controller

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Published by manoj kumar

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Published by: manoj kumar on Jul 27, 2009
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11/19/2010

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DC motor speed controller
I will introduce the constant speed controller for DC motor.It detects and controls the rotational speed of the motor. When lower than thespecification speed, it increases a control electric current. When higher than thespecification speed, it reduces a control electric current. It is possible to use whenwanting to keep constant speed even if the load to the motor changes.With the circuit this time, I used a motor for the speed detection apart from the mainunit motor. The speed can be detected in the other way, too. LEDs are lit up to confirmthe control situation of the motor.A circuit like "Light controller" is used for the control unit of this circuit.
 
 
 
Circuit explanation
 
for DC motor speed controller
Control voltage input circuit
This is the circuit which inputs the control voltage which was created by the turning of the motor in PIC.The input voltage to PIC is converted by A/D converter. Changed voltage is used for the PWM function of the CCP to control the motor drive. At the circuit this time, a small motor is used as the generator to detectthe number of rotations of the motor. The input voltage (the control voltage) to PIC is changed by thefluctuation of the number of rotations of the motor. The other way can be used to detect the number of rotations of the motor. It is need to change control voltage to proportional to the number of rotations of themotor. PIC controls the drive electric current of the motor for the control voltage to become a regulationvalue. When the revolution of the motor slows down, i.e. control voltage goes down, the drive electric currentof the motor is increased and number of rotations is raised. When the control voltage reaches a regulationvalue, an drive electric current at the point is held. Oppositely, when the number of rotations of the motor ishigh, i.e. the control voltage is high, the drive electric current of the motor is reduced and number of rotations is lowered. When the control voltage reaches a regulation value, an drive electric current at thepoint is held.DB1 is used to make not conscious of the polarity of the motor. When never making a mistake in theconnection, to use isn't necessary. When the voltage of the motor for the speed detection is small, it is betternot to put.D1 is used to protect PIC when the voltage of the detection motor is high. C1 is to make bypass the noise of the detection motor. VR1 is the variable resistor to set the number of rotations of the main motor. The inputvoltage of PIC becomes low when bringing VR1 close to the side 1 andPIC increases the drive electric current of the motor. That is, therevolution of the motor rises. The input voltage of PIC becomes highwhen bringing VR1 close to the side 3 and PIC reduces the driveelectric current of the motor. That is, the revolution of the motor slowsdown.For the details of the CCP, refer to "CCP feature of PIC16F873".
Motor drive circuit
The PWM(Pulse Width Modulation) function of PIC is used for theelectric current control to drive a motor.PWM can change the duty of the pulse to output into CCP1 by the data. When the time which ismade the H level of the pulse of CCP1 is short, the time of ON (the Llevel) becomes long in TR2. That is, the drive electric current of themotor increases. Oppositely, when the H level time of the pulse of CCP1 is long, the ON time of TR2becomes short and the drive electric current of the motor decreases.The duty of the pulse of CCP1 is controlled in the voltage (the control voltage) which was taken in with thecontrol voltage input circuit. When the control voltage is higher than the regulation value, the H level time of the CCP1 pulse is made long and the number of rotations of the motor is lowered. When the control voltageis lower than the regulation value, the H level time of the CCP1 pulse is made short and the number of rotations of the motor is raised.I used N-channel MOS FET for the drive of the motor. The P-channel MOS FET can be used, too. In thecase, the duty control of the CCP1 pulse becomes opposite. It becomes low-speed when the H level of thepulse is short and when long, it becomes high-speed. The way of connecting between the motor and the FETbecomes opposite. In this case, the power of the transistor for the FET drive should be connected with the
 
source terminal of P-FET.Because the output of the motor which was used this time is big, there is a gravity that the motor for thespeed detection breaks. Therefore, an electric current is suppressed by the resistor to have put in series.For the details of MOS FET, refer to "MOS FET".For the details of the CCP, refer to "CCP feature of PIC16F873".
Clock generator circuit
I am using 10-MHz resonator.There is not directly relation but it is related with the taking-in period with control voltage, theperiod of the motor driving pulse to the number of rotations of the motor.
LED displaying circuit
LEDs are made to light up to monitor the drive situation of the motor. 3 bits of higher ranks of the controldata of PWM are used for the lighting-up of LEDs. In the condition that a motor isn't driven, all LEDs areturned off. The number of the lighting-up is increased in the order from LED1 as the drive electric currentincreases. When the motor is in the maximum drive condition, all LEDs become a lighting-up condition.At the equipment this time, the LED of the bar type with seven LEDs is used. The circuit can control eightLEDs. However, at the equipment this time, LED1 isn't used and seven LEDs from LED2 to LED8 are used.An LED is lit up when RBx is H level.
Power supply circuit

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