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Published by manoj kumar

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Published by: manoj kumar on Jul 27, 2009
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Identigram as a security element in a German Identity card (Personalausweis)Holography (from theGreek ,
whole +
writing, drawing) is atechnique that allows thelightscattered from an object to be recorded and laterreconstructed so that it appears as if the object is in the same position relative to therecording medium as it was when recorded. The image changes as the position andorientation of the viewing system changes in exactly the same way is if the objectwere still present, thus making the recorded image (hologram) appear three  dimensional. Holograms can also be made using other types of waves.The technique of holography can also be used to optically store, retrieve, andprocess information. While holography is commonly used to display static 3-Dpictures, it is not yet possible to generate arbitrary scenes by a holographicvolumetric display.
[edit] Overview
Hologram Artwork inMIT MuseumHolography was invented in 1947 byHungarian physicistDennis Gabor(Hungarian name: Gábor Dénes) (1900–1979),
 work for which he received theNobel Prize in  Physicsin 1971. It was made possible by pioneering work in the field of physics byother scientists likeMieczysław Wolfke who resolved technical issues that previously made advancements impossible. The discovery was an unexpected result of researchinto improvingelectron microscopesat the British Thomson-Houston Company in Rugby, England. The British Thomson-Houston company filed a patent inDecember 1947(patent GB685286), but the field did not really advance until thedevelopment of the laserin 1960. The first holograms that recorded 3D objects were made in 1962 byYuri Denisyuk  in the Soviet Union;
Advances in photochemical processing techniques, to producehigh-quality display holograms were achieved byNicholas J. Phillips.
Several types of holograms can be made. Transmission holograms, such as thoseproduced by Leith and Upatnieks, are viewed by shining laser light through themand looking at the reconstructed image from the side of the hologram opposite thesource. A later refinement, the"rainbow transmission" hologramallows more
convenient illumination by white light rather than by lasers or other monochromaticsources. Rainbow holograms are commonly seen today on credit cards as a securityfeature and on product packaging. These versions of the rainbow transmissionhologram are commonly formed as surface relief patterns in a plastic film, and theyincorporate a reflective aluminium coating that provides the light from "behind" toreconstruct their imagery.Another kind of common hologram, the reflection or Denisyuk hologram, is capableof multicolour image reproduction using a white light illumination source on thesame side of the hologram as the viewer.One of the most promising recent advances in the short history of holography hasbeen the mass production of low-cost solid-state lasers—typically used by themillions in DVD recorders and other applications, but which are sometimes alsouseful for holography. These cheap, compact, solid-state lasers can under somecircumstances compete well with the large, expensive gas lasers previously requiredto make holograms, and are already helping to make holography much moreaccessible to low-budget researchers, artists, and dedicated hobbyists.
[edit] Theory
Holographic recording processThough holography is often referred to as 3D photography, this is a misconception.A better analogy issound recordingwhere the sound field is encoded in such a waythat it can later be reproduced. In holography, some of the light scattered from anobject or a set of objects falls on the recording medium. A second light beam, knownas the reference beam, also illuminates the recording medium, so thatinterference occurs between the two beams. The resulting light field is an apparently randompattern of varying intensity which is the hologram. It can be shown that if thehologram is illuminated by the original reference beam, a light field isdiffractedbythe reference beam which is identical to the light field which was scattered by theobject or objects. Thus, someone looking into the hologram 'sees' the objects even

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