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Light Emmiting Diode

Light Emmiting Diode

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Published by manoj kumar

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Published by: manoj kumar on Jul 27, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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Light-emitting diode
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected fromLED)Jump to:navigation, search
"LED" redirects here. For other uses, see LED (disambiguation) .
Blue, green, and red LEDs; these can be combined to produce any color, includingwhite. Infrared and ultraviolet (UVA) LEDs are also available.LED panels allow for smaller sets of interchangeable LEDs to be one large display.A light-emitting diode, usually called an LED (pronounced 
/
),
is asemiconductor diodethat emitsincoherentnarrow-spectrumlight when electrically biasedin the forward direction of thep-n junction, as in the commonLED circuit. This effect is a form of electroluminescence.A LED is usually a small area light source, often with optics added to the chip toshape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection.
LEDs are often used as smallindicator lights on electronic devices and increasingly in higher power applicationssuch as flashlights and area lighting. Thecolorof the emitted light depends on thecomposition and condition of the semiconducting material used, and can beinfrared, visible, orultraviolet.LEDs can also be used as a regular household light source. Besides lighting, interesting applications include sterilization of water anddisinfection of devices.
 
[edit] History
[edit] Discovery and development
The first known report of a light-emitting solid-state diode was made in1907by theBritish experimenterH. J. Roundof Marconi Labs. RussianOleg Vladimirovich  Losevindependently created the first LED in the mid 1920s; his research, thoughdistributed in Russian, German and British scientific journals, was ignored,
andno practical use was made of the discovery for several decades.Rubin Braunsteinof theRadio Corporation of America reported on infrared emission fromgallium  arsenide (GaAs)and other semiconductor alloys in 1955.
. Braunstein observedinfrared emission generated by simple diode structures using GaSb, GaAs, InP, andGe-Si alloys cooled by liquid nitrogen to 77 K. Experimenters atTexas Instruments,Bob Biard
 and Gary Pittman, found in 1961 that gallium arsenide gave ofinfrared radiation when electric current was applied. Biard and Pittman were ableto establish the priority of their work and received the patent for the infrared light-emittingdiode.The first practical visible-spectrum (red) LED was developed byNick Holonyak Jr. in 1962, then of the General Electric Companyand later with theUniversity of   Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
 and is seen as the "father of the light-emittingdiode".
Holonyak's former graduate student, M. George Craford, invented in1972 the first yellow LED and 10x brighter red and red-orange LEDs.
Shuji Nakamura of  Nichia Corporationof Japan demonstrated the first high- brightness blue LED based on InGaN, borrowing on critical developments inGaN  nucleation on sapphire substrates and the demonstration of p-type doping of GaNwhich were developed by I. Akasaki and H. Amano inNagoya. In the 1995Alberto  Barbieri at theCardiff UniversityLaboratory (GB) investigated the Efficiency and Reliability of high-brightness LED demonstrating very high result by using atransparent contact made byindium tin oxide(ITO) on (AlGaInP/GaAs) LED. Theexistence of the blue LED and high efficiency quickly carried to the first white LED,which employed a Y
3
Al
5
O
12
:Ce, or "YAG", phosphor coating to mix yellow (down-converted) light with blue to produce light that appears white. Nakamura wasawarded the 2006Millennium Technology Prizefor his invention.
[edit] Practical use
The first commercial LEDs were commonly used as replacements forincandescent indicators, and inseven-segment displays,first in expensive equipment such as laboratory and electronics test equipment, then later in such appliances as TVs,

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