Blue, green, and red LEDs; these can be combined to produce any color, includingwhite. Infrared and ultraviolet (UVA) LEDs are also available.LED panels allow for smaller sets of interchangeable LEDs to be one large display.A light-emitting diode, usually called an LED (pronounced
LEDs are often used as smallindicator lights on electronic devices and increasingly in higher power applicationssuch as flashlights and area lighting. Thecolorof the emitted light depends on thecomposition and condition of the semiconducting material used, and can beinfrared,visible, orultraviolet.LEDs can also be used as a regular household lightsource. Besides lighting, interesting applications include sterilization of water anddisinfection of devices.
The first known report of a light-emitting solid-state diode was made in1907by theBritish experimenterH. J. Roundof Marconi Labs. RussianOleg VladimirovichLosevindependently created the first LED in the mid 1920s; his research, thoughdistributed in Russian, German and British scientific journals, was ignored,
Shuji Nakamuraof Nichia Corporationof Japan demonstrated the first high-brightness blue LED based onInGaN, borrowing on critical developments inGaNnucleation on sapphire substrates and the demonstration of p-type doping of GaNwhich were developed by I. Akasaki and H. Amano inNagoya. In the 1995AlbertoBarbieriat theCardiff UniversityLaboratory (GB) investigated the Efficiency andReliability of high-brightness LED demonstrating very high result by using atransparent contact made byindium tin oxide(ITO) on (AlGaInP/GaAs) LED. Theexistence of the blue LED and high efficiency quickly carried to the first white LED,which employed a Y
:Ce, or "YAG", phosphor coating to mix yellow (down-converted) light with blue to produce light that appears white. Nakamura wasawarded the 2006Millennium Technology Prizefor his invention.
The first commercial LEDs were commonly used as replacements forincandescentindicators, and inseven-segment displays,first in expensive equipment such aslaboratory and electronics test equipment, then later in such appliances as TVs,