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1.4 Material and Energy Balance

1.4 Material and Energy Balance

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4. Material and Energy Balance
4. MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCE
SyllabusMaterial and Energy balance:
Facility as an energy system, Methods for preparing process flow, Material and energy balance diagrams.Material quantities, as they pass through processing operations, can be described bymaterial balances. Such balances are statements on the conservation of mass. Similarly,energy quantities can be described by energy balances, which are statements on theconservation of energy. If there is no accumulation, what goes into a process must comeout. This is true for batch operation. It is equally true for continuous operation over anychosen time interval.Material and energy balances are very important in an industry. Material balances arefundamental to the control of processing, particularly in the control of yields of the products. The first
 
material balances are determined in the exploratory stages of a new process, improved during pilot plant experiments when the process is being planned and tested, checked out when the plant is commissioned and then refined and maintained as acontrol instrument as production continues. When any changes occur in the process, thematerial balances need to be determined again.The increasing cost of energy has caused the industries to examine means of reducingenergy consumption in processing. Energy balances are used in the examination of thevarious stages of a process, over the whole process and even
 
extending over the total production system from the raw material to the finished product.Material and energy balances can be simple, at times they can be very complicated, butthe basic approach is general. Experience in working with the simpler systems such asindividual unit operations will develop the facility to extend the methods to the
 
morecomplicated situations, which do arise. The increasing availability of computers hasmeant that very complex mass and energy balances can be set up and manipulated quitereadily and therefore used in everyday process management to maximise product yieldsand minimise costs.
4.1 Basic Principles
If the unit operation, whatever its nature is seen as a whole it may be represented diagrammatically as a box, as shown in Figure. 4. 1. The mass and energy going into the box must balance with the mass and energy coming out.
 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Bureau of Energy Efficiency
82
 
4. Material and Energy Balance
RawMaterials inm
R1
m
R2
m
R3
Energy inHeat, Work,Chemical, ElectricalE
R1
E
R2
E
R3
UnitOperationStored Materialsm
S1
m
S2
m
S3
Stored EnergyE
S1
E
S2
E
S3
Products outm
P1
m
P2
m
P3
Waste products
m
W1
m
W2
m
W3
Energy in products
E
P1
E
P2
E
P3
Energy inWasteE
W1
E
W2
E
W3
Energy lossesTo surroundingsE
L1
E
L2
E
L3
 
Figure 4.1: Mass and Energy Balance
The law of conservation of mass leads to what is called a mass or a material balance.Mass In = Mass Out + Mass Stored Raw Materials = Products + Wastes + Stored Materials.
Σ
m
=
Σ
m
P
+
Σ
m
W
+
Σ
m
S
 (where
Σ
(sigma) denotes the sum of all terms).
Σ
m
=
Σ
m
R1
+
Σ
m
R2
+
Σ
m
R3
= Total Raw Materials
Σ
m
P
=
Σ
m
P1
+
Σ
m
P2
+
Σ
m
P3
= Total Products.
Σ
m
W
=
Σ
m
W1
+
Σ
m
W2
+
Σ
m
W3
= Total Waste Products
Σ
m
S
=
Σ
m
S1
+
Σ
m
S2
+
Σ
m
S3
= Total Stored Products.If there are no chemical changes occurring in the plant, the law of conservation of masswill apply also to each component, so that for component A:
m
 A
in entering materials =
m
 A
 
in the exit materials +
m
 A
 
stored in plant.For example, in a plant that is producing sugar, if the total quantity of sugar going intothe plant is not equalled by the total of the purified sugar and the sugar in the wasteliquors, then there is something wrong. Sugar is either being burned (chemicallychanged) or accumulating in the plant or else it is going unnoticed down the drainsomewhere. In this case:M
A
= (m
AP
+ m
AW
+ m
AU
)where
m
 AU 
 
is the unknown loss and needs to be identified. So the material balance is
 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Bureau of Energy Efficiency
83
 
4. Material and Energy Balance
now:Raw Materials = Products + Waste Products + Stored Products + Losseswhere Losses are the unidentified materials.Just as mass is conserved, so is energy conserved in food-processing operations. Theenergy coming into a unit operation can be balanced with the energy coming out and theenergy stored.Energy In = Energy Out + Energy Stored 
Σ
E
=
Σ
E
P
+
Σ
E
W
+
Σ
E
L
+
Σ
E
S
 where
Σ
E
= E
R1
+ E
R2
+ E
R3
+ ……. = Total Energy Entering
Σ
E
 p
= E
P1
+ E
P2
+ E
P3
+ ……. = Total Energy Leaving with Products
Σ
E
W
= E
W1
+ E
W2
+ E
W3
+ = Total Energy Leaving with Waste Materials
Σ
E
L
= E
L1
+ E
L2
+ E
L3
+ ……. = Total Energy Lost to Surroundings
Σ
E
S
= E
S1
+ E
S2
+ E
S3
+ ……. = Total Energy Stored Energy balances are often complicated because forms of energy can be interconverted,for example mechanical energy to heat energy, but overall the quantities must balance.
4.2 The Sankey Diagram and its Use
The Sankey diagram is veryuseful tool to represent anentire input and output energyflow in any energy equipmentor system such as boiler generation, fired heaters,furnaces after carrying outenergy balance calculation.This diagram representsvisually various outputs and losses so that energy managerscan focus on findingimprovements in a prioritized manner.
Figure 4.2: Energy Balance for a Reheating Furnace
 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Bureau of Energy Efficiency
84

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