Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword or section
Like this
0Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Manual of Civil Engineering Laboratory

Manual of Civil Engineering Laboratory

Ratings: (0)|Views: 2 |Likes:
Published by Ahmed Faraz

More info:

Published by: Ahmed Faraz on Oct 19, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/19/2013

pdf

text

original

 
 MANUAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERINGLABORATORY – I
(For First Year Intermediate Vocational Coursein Water Supply & Sanitary Engineering)
STATE INSTITUE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCTAION &BOARD OF INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION 
 
 
Sl.No TOPIC PageNo.
1 SAMPLING 12 SOLUTIONS 43 PREPARATION OF STANDARD Na
2
CO
3
SOLUTION 54 ACID BASE TITRATION 75 TOTAL HARDNESS 106 JAR TEST FOR OPTIMUM COAGULANT DOSAGE 127 FREE CHLORINE IN WATER 148 pH 169 CONDUCTIVITY 1710 DISSOLOVED OXYGEN 1811 TOTAL SOLIDS 2012 TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS 2113 CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND 2314 THEORETICAL DEMONSTRATION OF MICROBIAL TESTS 2515 PIPE SPECIALS 2716 LAYOUT OF TYPICAL PIPE SYSTEM 2917 PIPE CUTTING , THREADING WITH DIE SET 3118 ASSEMBLING OF A LENTH OF PIPE 3219 LINE SKETCH OF PIPE SYSTEM FOR SINGLE AND MULTISTOREYED BUILDING3420 PIPE CONNECTIONS TO PUMPS 3721 TRACING LEAKAGES IN WATER SUPPLY CONNECTIONS ANDTHEIR REPAIRING3822 OPERATION OF PUMPS 4023 PIPE CONNECTIONS TO A HAND PUMP IN A BORE WELL 4124 INSTALLATION OF ELECTRIC HEATER 42
 
1
 
SAMPLING
WATER SAMPLING
The significance of a chemical analysis depends to a large extent on the sampling programme. Anideal sample should be done Which is both valid and representative. These conditions are met bycollection of samples through a process of random selection. This ensures that the composition of the sample is identical to that of the water body from which it is collected and the sample shares thesame physico-chemical characteristics with the sampled water at the time and site of sampling.The relevant factors for any sampling programme are (a) frequency of sample collection, (b) totalnumber of samples, (c) size of each sample, (d)sites of sample collection, (e) method of samplecollection, (f) data to be collected with each sample, and (g) transportation and care of samplesFor analysis of natural and waste water, two principal types of sampling Procedures are employed:
SPOT OR GRAB SAMPLES :
 
are discrete portions of water samples taken at a given time. Aseries of grab samples, collected from different depths at a given site, reflect variations in constituentsover a period of time. The total number of grab samples should satisfy the requirements of thesampling programme
COMPOSITE SAMPLES
: are essentially weighted series of grab samples , the volume of eachbeing proportional to the rate of flow of the water stream at the time and site of sample collection.Samples may Composed over anytime period, such as 4, 8 or 24 hours, on the purpose of analysis.Such composite samples are useful for determining the average condition which , when correlatedwith flow, , can be used for computing the material balance of a stream of water body over a period of time.It may be stated in
 
general, that it is
 
more meaningful to analyse a large number of separatesamples taken at different times and different locations than to
compile
and analyse a
single
representative sample.Separate samples must be collected for chemical and biological analysis. , since
 
the sampling andpreservation techniques are quite different . For accurate analysis,
it 
is desirable to allow a short-timeinterval between sampling and analysis. As matter of fact temperature, pH and dissolved gases(D.O.) must be determined in the field and as quickly as possible after sampling.Collection
 
of truly representative sample is
 
as important as sample preservation. A representative

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->