propulsion can be traced as far back as
to an Egyptiannamed
. Hero invented a toythat rotated on top of a boiling potdue to the reaction effect of hot air or steam exiting several nozzlesarranged radially around a wheel.He called this invention anaeolipile.
the Chinese used rocketsto frighten enemy soldiers.
drew a sketch of a devicethat rotated due to the effect of hotgasses flowing up a chimney. The device was intended to be used to rotate meat beingroasted. In
another Italian named
actually developed a device thatused jets of steam to rotate a turbine that in turn was used to operate machinery. This wasthe first practical application of a steam turbine.
a Jesuit inChina built a model carriagethat used a steam jet for power in
.The first patent for aturbine engine wasgranted in
to anEnglishman named
. It incorporatedmany of the sameelements of a modern gas turbine but used a reciprocating compressor. There are manymore early examples of turbine engines designed by various inventors, but none wereconsidered to be true gas turbines because they incorporated steam at some point in theprocess.In
a man by the name of
designed the first true gas turbine. His engineincorporated a multistage turbine section and a multi stage axial flow compressor. Hetested working models in the early
the inventor of the Curtis steam engine filed the first patent application inthe U.S. for a gas turbine engine. His patent was granted in
but not without somecontroversy.The General Electric company started their gas turbine division in
. An engineer named
lead most of the projects. His most outstanding development wasthe General Electric turbosupercharger during world war 1. ( Although credit for the conceptis given to Rateau of France.) It used hot exhaust gasses from a reciprocating engine todrive a turbine wheel that in turn drove a centrifugal compressor used for supercharging.The evolutionary process of turbosupercharger design and construction made it possible toconstruct the first reliable gas turbine engines.
Sir Frank Whittle
of Great Britain patented a design for a jet aircraft engine in
.Hefirst proposed using the gas turbine engine for propulsion in 1928 while a student at theRoyal Air Force College in Cramwell, England. In 1941 an engine designed by Whittle wasthe first successful turbojet airplane flown in Great Britain.Concurrently with Whittle's development efforts, Hans von Ohain and Max Hahn, twostudents at Gottingen in Germany developed and patented their own engine design in
these ideas were adapted by The Ernst Heinkel Aircraft company.
aircraft company is credited with the first flight of a gas turbine powered jetpropelled aircraft on
August 27th 1939
.The HE178 was the first jet airplane to fly.
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