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Heat transfer analysis of blast furnace stave
Wu Lijun
a,*
, Xu Xun
a
, Zhou Weiguo
a
, Su Yunlong
b
, Li Xiaojing
b
a
Department of Thermal Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200092, People’s Republic of China
b
Technical Center of Maanshan Iron and Steel Co. Ltd., Maanshan 243000, People’s Republic of China
Received 20 October 2006; received in revised form 13 June 2007Available online 26 November 2007
Abstract
The three-dimensional mathematical model of temperature and thermal stress field of the blast furnace stave is built. The radiationheat transmitted from solid materials (coke and ore) to inner surface of the stave, which has been neglected by other studies, is taken intoaccount. The cast steel stave is studied and the finite element method is used to perform the computational analysis with soft ANSYS.Numerical calculations show very good agreement with the results of experiment. Heat transfer analysis is made of the effect of the cool-ing water velocity and temperature, the cooling channel inter-distance and diameter, the lining material, the cooling water scale, the coat-ing layer on the external surface of the cooling water pipe as well as the gas clearance on the maximum temperature and thermal stress of the stave hot surface. It is found that reducing the water temperature and increasing the water velocity would be uneconomical. The heattransfer and hence the maximum temperature and thermal stress in the stave can be controlled by properly adjusting operating condi-tions of the blast furnace, such as the gas flow, cooling channel inter-distance and diameter, lining material, coating layer and gasclearance.
Ó
2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords:
Blast furnace; Cooling stave; Heat transfer analysis
1. Introduction
The blast furnace is the equipment which produces mol-ten iron, shown inFig. 1. The cooling stave is the heattransfer fixture in blast furnace, shown inFig. 2. Damagedcooling staves are one of the most important reasons thatlead to a major overhaul or medium repair of a blast fur-nace. Therefore, cooling stave life is the key parameterfor prolonging campaign life of a blast furnace[1–9]. Asductile cast iron cooling stave cannot meet the need of cam-paign life well, and the capital cost of a copper stave is toohigh, there has been a lot of attention for steel cooling stavewith high specific elongation, tensile strength, melting tem-perature and thermal conductivity.There are many mathematical models describing theheat transfer process of the cooling stave. Steiger[1]devel-oped the heat transfer model to predict the temperaturefield of copper cooling plate and lining. Wang et al.[2]sim-ulated a three-dimensional heat transfer model to describethe temperature field in the wall of the lower stack region of a blast furnace. Some researchers[3–11]in China havedone some numerical simulations to calculate the tempera-ture field of the cooling stave. However, these models applyonly to copper or cast iron cooling staves, not to steel cool-ing staves. Besides, only the temperature field has been con-sidered in these models while the thermal stress field is notcalculated. Therefore, these calculation results are unlikelyto satisfactorily describe the damage of cooling stave whichis mainly caused by thermal stress changes within the cool-ing stave.This paper describes a three-dimensional mathematicalmodel of temperature and thermal stress fields for blast fur-nace steel cooling stave and lining. The effect of the differ-ent kinds of parameters on maximum temperature andthermal stress of the stave hot surface has been considered.
0017-9310/$ - see front matter
Ó
2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2007.09.030
*
Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 21 6598 1159; fax: +86 21 6598 0273.
E-mail address:
ljwu@mail.tongji.edu.cn(L. Wu).www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhmt
 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 51 (2008) 2824–2833
 
2. Model of temperature and thermal stress fields of coolingstave
 2.1. Model of temperature field of cooling stave
The cooler apparatus is among slag skull, lining, fillingmaterial and furnace shell. A three-dimensional schematicof model is shown inFig. 3.In this paper, the heat transfer of the cooling stave andlining is modeled under the steady state conductive heattransfer process. The three-dimensional heat transfer equa-tion can thus be described as follows:
oo
 x
i
k
ð
Þ
o
o
 x
i
¼
0
;
i
¼
1
;
2
;
3
ð
1
Þ
Nomenclature
c
constant
0
Planck constant, 5.67
Â
10
À
8
, W/(m
2
K
4
)
c
 p
specific heat capacity of cooling water, kJ/(kg K)
0
external diameter of the steel pipe, mm
1
inner diameter of the steel pipe, mm
Young’s modulus, Pa
h
overall coefficient of heat convection betweenfurnace shell and atmosphere, W/(m
2
°
C)
h
1
coefficient of natural heat convection betweenfurnace shell and atmosphere, W/(m
2
°
C)
h
2
coefficient of radiative heat transfer from fur-nace shell to atmosphere, W/(m
2
°
C)
h
wb
overall coefficient of heat convection betweencooling water and stave, W/(m
2
°
C)
h
z
overall convection coefficient between high tem-perature gas flow and solid materials and slagskull, W/(m
2
°
C)
characteristic length, m
n
constant
R
total heat resistance between cooling water andstave body, (m
2
°
C)/W
R
1
convection heat resistance between coolingwater and inner surface of steel pipe, (m
2
°
C)/W
R
2
conductive resistance of cooling water scale on theinner surface of cooling water pipes, (m
2
°
C)/W
R
3
conductive resistance of the steel pipe wall,(m
2
°
C)/W
R
4
coating layer on the outer surface of the coolingwater pipe, (m
2
°
C)/W
R
5
heat resistance of the gas clearance between thecooling water pipe and stave body, (m
2
°
C)/W
t
material temperature,
°
C
t
2
,
t
c
temperature of the surface of stave body close tothe coating layer and of the coating layer sur-face,
°
C
temperature,
°
C
a
atmospheric temperature,
°
C
2
,
c
absolute temperature correspond to
t
2
,
t
c
, K
g
gas flow temperature,
°
C
temperature of furnace shell,
°
C
wa
cooling water temperature,
°
C
wb
cooling water pipe ektexine temperature,
°
C
z
slag skull temperature,
°
C
v
velocity of cooling water, m/s
Greek symbols
a
w
coefficient of heat convection between coolingwater and steel pipe, W/(m
2
°
C)
k
thermal conductivity coefficient of material, W/(m
°
C)
k
air
thermal conductivity coefficient of atmosphere,W/(m
°
C)
k
d
thermal conductivity coefficient of water scale,W/(m
°
C)
k
c
thermal conductivity coefficient of coating layer,W/(m
°
C)
k
e
equivalent thermal conductivity of the gas clear-ance, W/(m
°
C)
k
g
the gas thermal conductivity, W/(m
°
C)
k
p
thermal conductivity coefficient of steel pipe, W/(m
°
C)
k
w
thermal conductivity coefficient of coolingwater, W/(m
°
C)
e
emissivity of furnace shell
e
2
emissivity of stave body
e
c
emissivity of coating layer
q
cooling water density, kg/m
3
t
kinetic viscosity of cooling water, m
2
/s
r
d
water scale thickness, mm
d
c
thickness of coating layer on the outer surface of the cooling water pipe, mm
d
g
thickness of the gas clearance layer,mm
r
x
,
r
 y
,
r
z
respectively
x
,
 y
,
z
axial stress, Pa
H
bulk force, Pa
s
xy
,
s
 yz
,
s
zx
shear strains, Pa
l
Poisson’s ratio
a
t
coefficient of linear thermal expansion,
°
C
À
1
Non-dimensional parametersRe
the Reynolds number
Nu
the Nusselt number
Pr
the Prandtl number
Gr
the Grash number
L. Wu et al./International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 51 (2008) 2824–2833
2825
 
Boundary conditions:Between atmosphere and furnace shell
k
o
o
 x
¼
h
ð
À
a
Þ ð
2
Þ
Between slag skull and high temperature gas flow
k
o
o
 x
¼
h
 z 
ð
g
À
 z 
Þ ð
3
Þ
Between cooling stave and cooling water
k
o
o
n
¼
h
wb
ð
wb
À
wa
Þ ð
4
Þ
k
o
o
 y 
¼
0
¼
0
;
ð
5
Þ
k
o
o
 z 
¼
0
¼
0
;
 H 
ð
6
Þ
 2.1.1. Value of h
The overall coefficient of heat convection between fur-nace shell and atmosphere is given by
h
¼
h
1
þ
h
2
ð
7
Þ
where
h
1
is the coefficient of natural heat convection be-tween furnace shell and atmosphere;
h
2
is the radiativecoefficient of heat convection between furnace shell andatmosphere, W/(m
2
°
C).For the calculation of 
h
1
, an equation can be describedas follows according to the rule of natural heat convection:
 Nu
¼
c
ð
Gr 
Á
Pr 
Þ
n
ð
8
Þ
Therefore, the value of 
h
1
is given as
h
1
¼
Nu
k
air
l
¼
c
ð
Gr 
Á
Pr
Þ
n
k
air
l
ð
9
Þ
where
is the characteristic length of heat surface, namelythe calculational high of the erect furnace shell[12],1.385 m. On the surface of the erect cylinder, the Reynoldsnumber is
Re
= 8565. It belongs to transitional flow andthe Grash number Gr = 3.4
Â
10
9
. Hence,
c
,
n
is 0.0292and 0.39, respectively according to Ref.[12].The coefficient
h
2
is given as
h
2
¼
e
0
½ð
þ
273
Þ
4
À ð
a
þ
273
Þ
4
=
ð
À
a
Þ ð
10
Þ
where
e
is the emissivity of furnace shell surface, 0.3;
0
isthe Planck constant, 5.67
Â
10
À
8
W/(m
2
K
4
).
 2.1.2. Value of h
wb
The heat transfer between stave body and cooling wateris shown inFig. 4. The total heat resistance between cool-ing water and stave body contains the convection heatresistance between cooling water and water scale
R
1
; theconductive resistance of cooling water scale on the innersurface of cooling water pipes
R
2
; the conductive resistanceof the steel pipe wall
R
3
; the heat resistance of the coatinglayer on the external surface of the cooling water pipe
R
4
and the heat resistance of the gas clearance between thecoating layer and the stave body
R
5
. Therefore, the overallcoefficient of heat convection between the cooling staveand the cooling water
h
wb
is given by
h
wb
¼
1
=
 R
ð
11
Þ
where
R
is the total heat resistance between the coolingwater and the stave body, (m
2
°
C)/W, which can be de-scribed by the follows[5,8]:
 R
¼
R
1
þ
R
2
þ
R
3
þ
R
4
þ
R
5
ð
12
Þ
Fig. 1. Blast furnace and cooling stave.
View ABrick StaveRound cooling pipeCooling channel inter-distanceView on Arrow A
Fig. 2. Cooling stave.2826
L. Wu et al./International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 51 (2008) 2824–2833

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