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Plate Buckling

Plate Buckling

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Published by: mas on Jul 29, 2009
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02/19/2013

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Chapter 1
Introduction: Plate Buckling and the vonKarman Equations
1.1 Buckling Phenomena
Problems of initial and postbuckling represent a particular class of bi-furcation phenomena; the long history of buckling theory for structuresbegins with the studies by Euler [1] in 1744 of the stability of flexiblecompressed beams, an example which we present in some detail below,to illustrate the main ideas underlying the study of initial and post-buckling behavior. Although von Karman formulated the equations forbuckling of thin, linearly elastic plates which bear his name in 1910 [2],a general theory for the postbuckling of elastic structures was not putforth until Koiter wrote his thesis [3] in 1945 (see, also, Koiter [4], [5]);it is in Koiter’s thesis that the fact that the presence of imperfectionscould give rise to significant reductions in the critical load required tobuckle a particular structure first appears. General theories of bifur-cation and stability originated in the mathematical studies of Poincar´e[6], Lyapunov [7], and Schmidt [8] and employed, as basic mathemati-cal tools, the inverse and implicit function theorems, which can be usedto provide a rigorous justification of the asymptotic and perturbationtype expansions which dominate studies of buckling and postbucklingof structures. Accounts of the modern mathematical approach to bi-furcation theory, including buckling and postbuckling theory, may befound in many recent texts, most notably those of Keller and Antman,[9], Sattinger [10], Iooss and Joseph [11], Chow and Hale [12], and Gol-ubitsky and Schaeffer [13], [14]. Among the noteworthy survey articleswhich deal specifically with buckling and postbuckling theory are thoseof Potier-Ferry [15], Budiansky [16], and (in the domain of elastic-plasticresponse) Hutchinson [17]. Some of the more recent work in the gen-eral area of bifurcation theory is quite sophisticated and deep from amathematical standpoint, e.g., the work of Golubitsky and Schaeffer,
© 2001 by Chapman & Hall/CRC
 
cited above, as well as [18] and [19], which employ singularity theory formaps, an outgrowth of the catastrophe theory of Thom [20]). Besidesproblems in buckling and postbuckling of structures and, in particular,the specific problems associated with the buckling and postbuckling be-havior of thin plates, general ideas underlying bifurcation and nonlinearstability theory have been used to study problems in fluid dynamics re-lated to the instabilities of viscous flows as well as branching problemsin nonlinear heat transfer, superconductivity, chemical reaction theory,and many other areas of mathematical physics. Beyond the referencesalready listed, a study of various fundamental issues in branching theory,with applications to a wide variety of problems in physics and engineer-ing, may be found in references [21]-[58], to many of which we will haveoccasion to refer throughout this work.To illustrate the phenomena of bifurcation within the specific contextof buckling and postbuckling of structures, we will use the example of thebuckling of a thin rod under compression, which is due to Euler, op. cit,1744, and which is probably the simplest and oldest physical examplewhich illustrates this phenomena. InFig. 1.1, we show a homogeneousthin rod, both of whose ends are pinned, the left end being fixed whilethe right end is free to move along the
x
-axis. In its unloaded state, therod coincides with that portion of the
x
-axis between
x
= 0 and
x
= 1.Under a compressive load
, a possible state of equilibrium for therod is that of pure compression; however, experience shows that, forsufficiently large values of 
, transverse deflections can occur. Assumingthat the buckling takes place in the
x,y
plane, we now investigate theequilibrium of forces on a portion of the rod which includes its left end;the forces and moments are taken to be positive, as indicated inFig.1.2.Let
be the original
x
-coordinate of a material point located in aportion of the rod depicted inFig. 1.2. This point moves, after buckling,to the point with coordinates (
+
u,v
). We let
ϕ
be the angle betweenthe tangent to the buckled rod and the
x
-axis and
s
the arc length along aportion of the rod (measured from the left end). Although more generalconstitutive laws may be considered, we restrict ourselves here to thecase of an inextensible rod in which the Euler-Bernoulli law relates themoment
acting on a cross-section with the curvature
dϕ/ds
. Thus
s
=
while
=
EI ds
(1.1)with
EI 
the (positive) bending stiffness. The constitutive relation (1.1)
© 2001 by Chapman & Hall/CRC
 
is supplemented by the geometric relation
dvds
= sin
ϕ
(1.2)and the equilibrium condition
=
Pv
(1.3)Combining the above relations, we obtain the pair of first order non-linear differential equations
λv
=
ds, λ
=
P/EI dvds
= sin
ϕ
(1.4)with associated boundary conditions
v
(0) =
v
(
) = 0 (1.5)A solution of (1.4), (1.5) is a triple (
λ,v,ϕ
) and any solution with
v
(
s
)
0 is called a buckled state; we note that
λ
= 0 implies that
v
0and cannot, therefore, generate a buckled state. When
λ
= 0
,
(1.4),(1.5) is equivalent to the boundary value problem
d
2
ϕds
2
+
λ
sin
ϕ
= 0
,
0
< s < 
(1.6a)
ϕ
(0) =
ϕ
(
) = 0 (1.6b)The actual lateral deflection
v
(
s
) can then be calculated from
ϕ
byusing the first equation in (1.4). We note that the rod has an associatedpotential energy of the form
=12
E
 
0
ds
2
ds
 
0
cos
ϕds
(1.7)and that setting the first variation
δV 
=
(
ϕ
)
δϕ
= 0 yields the differ-ential equation (1.6a) with the natural boundary conditions (1.6b).The linearized version of (1.6a,b) for small deflections
v
, and smallangles
ϕ
, is obtained by substituting
ϕ
for sin
ϕ
(a precise mathematical justification for considering the linearized problems so generated will beconsidered below); the linearized problem for
v
then becomes
© 2001 by Chapman & Hall/CRC

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