Volume occupied by filter medium: 500
(1150-750) = 100 mLDensity of the filter medium: 550/100 = 5.5 g/mL or 5500 kg/m3
2.2 Write note on the Water Quality index (WQI) calculation?
Monitored values for the selected parameters are converted into common scale units by using parameter transformationequations/curves.
The parameter values in common scale units are multiplied with the respective parameter’s relative importance
values.Weighted parameter values are aggregated to obtain the water quality index value.Maximum operator, minimum operator, sum, geometric mean or arithmetic mean are used for aggregation.
Population record of a city is as given below:Year Population (in 1000s) Year Population (in 1000s)1951 98 1991 2701961 120 2001 3401971 160 2011 4001981 220
Forecast the city’s population in the year 2026 by the
Sigmoid Growth Method
?P0, P1 and P2 are taken as 98 for 1951, 220 for 1981 and 400 for 2011 respectively.
Value of ‘n’ is taken as 6
decadesP saturated: ((2x98x220x400)-(220x220x(98+400))/(98x400-220x220) = 745
Value of ‘a’: ln((745
-400)/400) = -0.1479
Value of ‘b’:
(1/6)xln((98x(745-220))/(220x(745-98)) = -0.1696Population forecasted for the year 2026: 745/(1+exp(-0.1479+(-0.1696x1.5))) = 446Here Delta t is taken as 1.5 decades
On a horizontal 100 mm diameter water supply pipeline a Venturimeter with mercury as a manometric fluid has been provided for facilitating the flow measurement. At one point of time, if the manometric fluid level difference of theventurimeter was monitored as 7.5 cm, find the water flow rate in the pipeline at that time?Take the throat diameter of the venture meter (not given) as 40 mmTake discharge coefficient (cd) for the venture meter (not given) as 0.8Assuming SG of Hg as 13.5, the manometric fluid level difference in terms of water column is 0.075x(13.5-1) = 0.94 mFlow through a venture meter =
h g aaac
a1 and a2 are pipe and venture throat flow cross-sectional areas respectively (a1: 7,85x10-3 m2; and a2: 1.26x10-3 m2)g is acceleration due gravity (taken as 9.81)Flow rate:
Marks:4x4 = 16
Q.3 Answer the following:
3.1 What is
System Head-capacity Curve
? Construct this curve for a pump system provided for pumping water, at the rate of
/hour, from an Underground Reservoir to an Elevated Service Reservoir? Static head of the pump system is 25m. Piping length of the pump system is 40 m. Cumulative minor loss coefficient (
K) for the system is 7.5 (this excludesboth entry and exit losses). Maximum flow velocity allowed in the piping is 3.0 m/sec.
Pipe diameter considered (to carry upto 300 m3/hr flow at a maximum velocity of 3 m/sec.): 200 mmStatic head: 25 mPipe length: 40 m