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Mauldin October 19

Mauldin October 19

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Published by richardck61
Mauldin October 19
Mauldin October 19

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Published by: richardck61 on Oct 21, 2013
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The Damage to the US Brand
By John Mauldin | October 19, 2013An Exorbitant PrivilegeA Friction-Free World?A Small Percentage of AmericansThe Damage to the US BrandAn Open Letter to My Senator, Ted Cruz
Code Red,
Science Saves the Future,
New York, Florida, Geneva, Saudi Arabia, and Canada
There is no doubt that the image – what I will refer to in this letter as the "brand" – of theUnited States has been damaged in the past month. But what are the actual costs? And what does itmatter to the average citizen? Can the US recover its tarnished image and go on about business asusual? Is the recent dysfunction in Washington DC now behind us, or is it destined to become partof a bleaker landscape? In this week's letter we try to answer those questions and more, as I stepfirmly into politically incorrect territory and offer a little advice to my junior senator from Texas.If nothing else, we will look at the problems we face in a different light.
An Exorbitant Privilege
The term
exorbitant privilege
refers to the alleged benefit the United States receives due tothe US dollar's being the international reserve currency. The term was coined in the 1960s byValéry Giscard d'Estaing (not Charles de Gaulle, as many think), then the French Minister of Finance, later President of France, and an early and major proponent of a United States of Europe.This was prior to the gold window's being shut by Nixon. Giscard saw the Bretton Woodsmonetary system not simply as a way to balance international payments but as something that wasgiving the United States a significant advantage in the world. He was right.Under Bretton Woods, the US would never face a balance of payments crisis, because it purchased imports in its own currency. That exorbitant privilege could not redound to a countrywhose currency had only a regional reserve currency role, but in the postwar era the US dollar reigned supreme around the world.Academically, the exorbitant privilege literature analyzes two empiric puzzles, the positionand the income puzzle. The position puzzle consists of the difference between the(negative) U.S. net international investment position (NIIP) and the accumulated U.S.current account deficits, the former being much smaller than the latter. The income puzzleconsists of the fact that despite a deeply negative NIIP, the U.S. income balance is positive,i.e. despite having much more liabilities than assets, earned income is higher than interestexpenses. (Wikipedia)
 What that means in practical terms is that the United States can purchase more with itscurrency than it produces and sells. In theory those accounts should balance. But the world'sreserve currency, for all intent and purposes, becomes a product. The world needs dollars in order to conduct its trade. Today, if someone in Peru wants to buy something from Thailand, they firstconvert their local currency into US dollars and then purchase the product with those dollars.Those dollars eventually wind up at the Central Bank of Thailand, which includes them in itsreserve balance. When someone in Thailand wants to purchase an imported product, their bank accesses those dollars, which may go anywhere in the world that will take the US dollar, which isto say pretty much anywhere.Other currencies can also function as reserve currencies if there is sufficient trade betweencountries. The euro, the Canadian dollar, the Aussie dollar, and the yen are examples; but the USdollar is the 800-pound gorilla.There have been other global reserve currencies. The British pound sterling served as aglobal currency prior to the ascendance of the dollar. In most ways, we in the US act as if our dollar will always be the world's reserve currency. History suggests, however, that reservecurrencies come and go. The US dollar will remain the dominant reserve currency only as long aswe respect the responsibility that comes with our exorbitant privilege.That privilege allows US citizens to purchase goods and services at prices somewhat lower than those people in the rest of the world must pay. We can produce electronic fiat dollars, and therest of the world accepts them because they need them to in order to trade with each other. Andthey do so because they trust the dollar more than they do any other currency that is readilyavailable. You can take those dollars and come to the United States and purchase all manner of goods, including real estate and stocks. Just this week a Chinese company spent $600 million to buy a building in New York City. Such transactions happen all the time.And there is one other item those dollars are used to pay for: US Treasury bonds. We buyoil and all manner of goods with our electronic dollars, and those dollars typically end up on thereserve balance sheets of other central banks, which buy our government bonds. It's hard toquantify the exact amount, but these transactions significantly lower the cost of borrowing for theUS government. On a $16 trillion debt, every basis point (1/10 of 1%) means a saving of $16 billion annually. So 5 basis points would be $80 billion a year. There are credible estimates that thesavings are well in excess of $100 billion a year. Thus, as the debt grows, the savings also grow!That also means the total debt compounds at a lower rate.Just as an aside, $80-$100 billion a year will buy a lot of healthcare. Hold that thought aswe continue to look at currency trading and reserve currency status.
A Friction-Free World? 
Let's return to our example of trade between Peru and Thailand. There is presumably littlereason for a furniture manufacturer in Thailand to take Peruvian money (which is called the nuevosol). Let's assume this piece of furniture sells for 32,300 Thai baht or about $1000. So the buyer in
Peru takes 2,764 nuevo sols, buys 1,000 US dollars, sends them to Thailand, and
his teak table comes in on the next boat.Except that it isn't quite that simple, as anyone who has done a substantial foreigntransaction knows. You have to go to your local bank, which probably goes to its correspondentintermediary bank, which in turn deals with a large international investment bank, which thensends the money on to an intermediary in Thailand and then to a local Thai bank. At every stepalong the way there is a "toll" charged. While much smaller than it was a few decades ago, thosetolls – that "friction" – can add up to a sizable sum. Depending on whom you ask and what youcount, the total amount of currency traded per day is as much as $4 trillion, and just a few "pips"taken out to grease the skids tally up to a rather tidy sum.(For the curious, a "pip" stands for "percentage in point" and is the smallest increment of trade in foreign exchange [FX] currency trading. In the FX market, prices are quoted to the fourthdecimal point. For example, if a bar of soap in the drugstore is priced at $1.20, in the FX marketthe same bar of soap would be quoted at 1.2000. The change in that fourth decimal point is called 1 pip and is equal to 1/100
of 1%.)Currently, there are only about seven currencies that are traded in serious amounts,although theoretically every currency is trading in some manner. When I was traveling aroundAfrica, I would often come across a street in a city where currencies were being traded. The rateswere much better than you could get at the local bank. Going with an "official" rate often meanssuffering a real loss in local buying power, and thus the spreads on some currencies are muchwider than on others. No one wants to get stuck with an Argentine peso for very long outside of Argentina, and even inside Argentina the locals exchange money into pesos only when they needlocal currency. When I was last there, using a credit card cost anywhere between 10-15% more (if a local establishment took credit cards at all), because the store would have to cash in at the officialrate rather than the street rate.And while the "friction," or transaction cost, of trading a euro for a dollar and vice versa isa much smaller percentage, it is there. And thus the need for dollars to grease the wheels. To tradegoods between Peru and Thailand, intermediaries usually have to find dollars.But the key word in that sentence is
This week, London and Hong Kong agreedto begin trading in Chinese renminbi. The "extra" friction once incurred in converting to the USdollar will disappear, and the cost of doing direct transactions will fall. This absolutely makessense for the two countries, and over time it will make sense on an ever-larger scale. Currenciesare increasingly becoming mere electronic blips. For young traders, sitting at an FX desk is justanother computer game, but if they are good at it, they get paid real money. Killing pips can bemore profitable than killing zombies ever was.The dollar is the world's reserve currency because it is a no-brainer trade. You don't have tothink about your risk. If you take a ruble, you need to think about your risk and maybe buy someinsurance. You ask yourself if you can trust Putin with your money. Even today, if you begin tostockpile renminbi, what can you do with them? You need to find something to import from China.There is risk to that trade. Not as large a risk as in the past, but more than if you deal in dollars.

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