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WiMAX and Wifi

WiMAX and Wifi

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Published by: cool.tba on Jul 29, 2009
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What is WiMAX ?WiMAX
is short for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. It is ametropolitan wireless standard created by the companies Intel and Alvarion in 2002 andratified by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) under the nameIEEE-802.16. More precisely,
WiMAX
is the commercial designation that the WiMAXForum gives to devices which conform to the IEEE 802.16 standard, in order to ensure ahigh level of interoperability among them.
Goals of WiMAX
The goal of WiMAX is to provide high-speed Internet access in a coverage range severalkilometres in radius. In theory, WiMAX provides for speeds around 70 Mbps with arange of 50 kilometres. The WiMAX standard has the advantage of allowing wirelessconnections between a
base transceiver station
(BTS) and thousands of subscriberswithout requiring that they be in a direct line of sight (LOS) with that station. Thistechnology is called NLOS for non-line-of-sight. In reality, WiMAX can only bypasssmall obstructions like trees or a house and cannot cross hills or large buildings. Whenobstructions are present, actual throughput might be under 20 Mbps.
Operating principle of WiMAX
At the heart of WiMAX technology is the
base transceiver station
, a central antennawhich communicates with subscribers' antennas
.
The term
 point-multipoint link 
is usedfor WiMAX's method of communication.
Fixed WiMAX and WiMAX portable
The revisions of the IEEE 802.16 standard fall into two categories:
Fixed WiMAX
, also called
 IEEE 802.16-2004
, provides for a fixed-line connectionwith an antenna mounted on a rooftop, like a TV antenna. Fixed WiMAX operates inthe 2.5 GHz and 3.5 GHz frequency bands, which require a licence, as well as thelicence-free 5.8 GHz band.
Mobile WiMAX
, also called
 IEEE 802.16e
, allows mobile client machines to beconnected to the Internet. Mobile WiMAX opens the doors to mobile phone use over IP, and even high-speed mobile services.
StandardFrequencySpeedRange
Fixed WiMAX (802.16-2004)2-11 GHz (3.5 GHz in Europe)75 Mbps10 kmMobile WiMAX (802.16e)2-6 GHz30 Mbps3.5 km
Applications of WiMAX
One of WiMAX's potential uses is to cover the so-called "last mile" (or "last kilometre)area, meaning providing high-speed Internet access to areas which normal wiredtechnolgies do not cover (such as DSL, cable, or dedicated T1 lines).Another possibility involves using WiMAX as a
backhaul 
 between two local wirelessnetworks, such as those using theWiFistandard. WiMAX will ultimately enable twodifferent hotspots to be linked to create a mesh network.
 
WiMAX and Quality of Service
The WiMAX standard natively supports
Quality of Service
(often called
QoS 
for short),the ability to ensure that a service works when used. In practice, WiMAX lets bandwidth be reserved for a given purpose. Some applications cannot work properly when bottlenecks occur. This is the case for Voice Over IP (
VOIP 
), as spoken communication isineffective when gaps a second long are introduced.
WiMAX StandardsStandardFrequencyStatusRange
IEEE std 802.16Defines wireless metropolitan areanetworks (WMANs) on frequency bands higher than 10 GHz.October 2002ObsoleteIEEE std 802.16aDefines wireless metropolitan areanetworks on frequency bands from 2to 11 GHz inclusive.October 9,2003ObsoleteIEEE 802.16bDefines wireless metropolitan areanetworks on frequency bands from10 to 60 GHz inclusive. Merged with802.16a(Obsolete)IEEE std 802.16cDefines options (profiles) fowireless metropolitan area networksin unlicensed frequency bands.July 2003IEEE 802.16d(IEEE std 802.16-2004)Revision incorporating the 802.16,802.16a, and 802.16c standards.October 1
st
, 2004ActiveIEEE std 802.16eAllows wireless metropolitan areanetworks to be used by mobileclients.not ratifiedIEEE std 802.16f Allows wireless mesh networks to beused.not ratified
 
Most people associate the term "Wi-Fi®" with the ability to browse the internetwirelessly. Though this definition isn't incorrect, there is much more to Wi-Fi wirelesstechnology than just browsing the internet. Ten years ago, no one would have thoughtthat it would be possible to listen to music from your basement computer on your entertainment system upstairs, or download songs to your Wi-Fi-enabled MP3 player, butWi-Fi technology has made it possible to do not only these, but a host of other applications as well.
What is Wi-Fi?
Short for "wireless fidelity", Wi-Fi is one of the most popular wireless communicationsstandards on the market. In its fledgling stages, Wi-Fi technology was almost solely usedto wirelessly connect laptop computers to the internet via local area networks (LANs), but thanks to the immense flexibility the technology provides, that's no longer the case.Wi-Fi technology is now found in a host of non-computer electronic devices as well, suchas home theater receivers, portable gaming devices, DVD players, digital cameras, andeven GPS devices.Wi-Fi is technically a trademarked brand name for the wireless standard owned by theWi-Fi Alliance, much likeBluetooth®is trademarked by the Bluetooth Special InterestGroup. However, the term has become so widely used (like Xerox® and Kleenex®), thatit has become a generic term, and the copyright is no longer protected.Wireless StandardsThe official name for the specification isIEEE 802.11, and it is comprised of more than20 different standards, each of which is denoted by a letter appended to the end of thename. The most familiar standards are 802.11b and 802.11g (Wireless B and G) whichare used in the majority of commercial Wi-Fi devices. Both of these standards operate inthe 2.4 GHz band, and the only major difference between the two is the transfer rate (seechart below).Some consumer electronics, however, use a different standard—Wireless A. Thesedevices operate within the 5 GHz range and have transfer rates equivalent to 802.11g.However, since they operate on different frequencies, devices using the 802.11a standardcannot communicate with B and G-enabled devices. For this reason, it is important tocheck the compatibility of components with your wireless network prior to purchasingthem.Comparison of standardsThe table below provides a brief overview of the three most popular current 802.11standards, as well as information about the next version of Wi-Fi — 802.11n.
StandardFrequencyData Transfer Rate Typical (Max)Range (indoor)
802.11a5 GHz25 (50) Mb/secabout 10 m (30 ft)802.11b2.4GHz6.5 (11) Mb/sec30 m (90 ft)802.11g2.4 GHz25 (54) Mb/sec30+ m (90+ ft)802.11n *2.4 GHz200 (540) Mb/sec50m (150ft)* The 802.11n standard is not expected to be completed until late 2009.
Advantages of Wi-Fi
Unparalleled mobility and flexibilityIf you've ever installed a multi-room stereo and had to run wires through a wall, youknow the amount of time and effort it requires, not to mention the permanence of your 

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