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Hydraulic Structures - Lecture Notes

Hydraulic Structures - Lecture Notes

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Published by: addymore on Jul 29, 2009
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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES, RESERVOIR ENGINEERING LECTURE NOTES F. O. K. AnyemeduKUMASI MARCH - 2007 
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Chapter 1; Hydraulic StructuresHydraulic Structures
Hydraulic structures are engineering structures constructed for the purposes of harnessing and using water resources (groundwater, surface water, lakes, sea,etc) or for the prevention of the negative and destructive actions (floods, shoreerosion, etc) of water on the surrounding environment.There are a large variety of hydraulic structures to serve the many purposes for which water resources are put to use. There are several classifications of hydraulic structures, however, the most important is the classification by functionas given below.
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Table 1. Classification of Hydraulic Structures by function
Type Purpose Structure1. Storage structuresTo store waterDams, tanks2. Flow controlstructuresTo regulate thequantity and passexcess flowSpillways, outlets, gates,valves3. Flow measurementstructuresTo determinedischargeWeirs, orifices, flumes4. Division structuresTo divert the maincourse of water Coffer dams, weirs, canalheadworks, intake works5. ConveyancestructuresTo guide flow fromone location toanother Open channel, pressureconduits, pipes, canals andsewers6. Collection structuresTo collect water for disposalDrain inlets, infiltrationgalleries, wells7. Energy dissipationstructuresTo prevent erosionand structuraldamageStilling basins, surge tanks,check dams8. Shore protectionstructuresTo protect banksDikes, groins, jetties,revetments9. River training andwaterway stabilizationstructuresTo maintain river channel and water transportationLevees, cutoffs, locks, piers,culverts10. Sediment andquality controlstructuresTo control or removesediments and other pollutantsRacks, screens, traps,sedimentation tanks, filters,sluiceways11. Hydraulic machinesTo convert energyfrom one from toanother Pumps, turbines, rams.
1. Storage structures - DamsDam:
Dam is any artificial barrier and its appurtenant works constructed for thepurpose of holding water or any other fluid.There are three common classification schemes for dams. According to thefunction performed, dams are classified into:i)storage dams for impounding water for developmental uses.ii)Diversion dams for diverting streamflow into canals or other conveyance system andiii)Detention dams to hold the water temporary to retard flood flowsFrom hydraulic design considerations, dams are classified as:i)overflow dams to carry discharge over their crests, and
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