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Malaria 101- 4

Malaria 101- 4

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Published by pieterinpretoria391
Malaria 4 species
Malaria 4 species

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Published by: pieterinpretoria391 on Oct 22, 2013
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10/22/2013

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252
D
ISTRICT
ABORATORY
P
RACTICE IN
T
ROPICAL 
C
OUNTRIES
5.7
Plasmodium falciparum
Widespread in tropics.
Often high parasitaemia.
Only trophozoites andgametocytes usually seen.Trophozoites
Small rings, occasionally largerrings in heavy infections.*
Often with double chromatin dot.
May lie on red cell membrane(accolé forms).
* Parasites are difficult to recognize if patient has taken antimalarials.Trophozoites of resistant strains can appearthick and distorted.
Schizonts
Only seen occasionally in severeinfections.
Usually with 2 or 4 merozoitesand pigment.Gametocytes
Banana shaped.
Rounded forms may be seen if film dries slowly.
Host cell
Often contains several parasites.
Irregular mauve-red Maurer’sdots (clefts) seen in cells withmature rings.
Plasmodium malariae
Low prevalence in tropics andsubtropics.
Rarely more than 1% of cellsinfected (easily missed).
Trophozoites, schizonts andgametocytes usually seen.Trophozoites
Thick, neat, densely stained.
Yellow-brown pigment in latetrophozoites.
Band forms can be seen in thinfilms.
Occasionally ‘bird’s-eye’ ringform may be seen.Schizonts
Small with neatly arranged (up to12) merozoites.
Yellow-brown pigment.Gametocytes
Small, round or oval (can bedifficult to differentiatefrom late trophozoites).
Yellow-brown pigment.
Host cell
No changes.
Older cells parasitized.Plate 5.43
P.falciparum
.
a
Trophozoites and gametocytes in thin film.
b
Young schizont (rare), and trophozoites.
c
Many trophozoites, gametocyte,and white cells containing pigment in Fields stained thick film.
d
Thick filmfrom patient with sickle cell disease and falciparum malaria. Note, blue stipplingin background (reticulocytosis) and nucleated red cell nucleus (above trophozoite).Plate 5.46
P.malariae
.
a
Trophozoites (Bird’s eye and band forms, gametocyte,and schizont in thin film.
b
Schizont, trophozoite, and gametocyte in thin film.
c
Trophozoites, schizonts, and gametocyte in Fields stained thick film.
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