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Anthony Pigafetta

Anthony Pigafetta

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Published by Shari Santos
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Published by: Shari Santos on Oct 22, 2013
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 Patrician of Vicenza, and Knight of Rhodes, tothe very illustrious and very excellent 
the famous Grand Master of Rhodes, his most respected  Lord.
 Since there are several curious persons (very illustrious and very reverend lord) who notonly are pleased to listen to and learn the great and wonderful things which God has permitted me to see and suffer in the long and perilous navigation, which I have performed(and which is written hereafter), but also they desire to learn the methods and fashions of the road which I have taken in order to go thither, [and who do] not grant firm belief to theend unless they are first well advised and assured of the commencement. Therefore, mylord, it will please you to hear that finding myself in Spain in the year of the Nativity of our Lord, and thousand five hundred and nineteen, at the court of the most serene king* of theRomans, with the reverend lord, Mons. Fran
cis Cheregato,† then apostolic proto
-notary, andambassador of the Pope Leon the Tenth, who, through his virtue, afterwards arrived at the bishopric of Aprutino and the principality of Theramo, and knowing both by the reading of many books and by the report of many lettered and well-informed persons who conversedwith the said proto-notary, the very great and awful things of the ocean, I deliberated, withthe favour of the Emperor and the above-named lord, to experiment and go and see with myeyes a part of those things. By which means I could satisfy the desire of the said lords, andmine also. So that it might be said that I had performed the said voyage, and seen well withmy eyes the things hereafter written.* Charles V was elected Emperor the 28th June, 1519.
† Chiericato. Milan edition.
  Now in order to decypher the commencement of my voyage (very illustrious lord); havingheard that there was in the city of Seville, a small armade [
, armada] to the number of five ships, ready to perform this long voyage, that is to say, to find the islands of Maluco,from whence the spices come: of which armade the captain-general was Fernand deMagalianes, a Portuguese gentleman, commander of 
St. James of the Sword 
, who had performed several voyages in the ocean sea (in which he had behaved very bonourably as agood man), I set out with many others in my favour from Barcelona, where at the time theEmperor was, and came by sea as far as Malaga, and thence I went away by land until Iarrived at the said city of Seville. there I remained for the space of three months, waiting tillthe said armade was in order and readiness to perform its voyage. And because (veryillustrious lord) that on the return from the said voyage, on going to Rome towards theholiness of our Holy
Father,* I found your lordship at Monterosa,† where of your favour 
you gave me a good reception, and afterwards gave me to understand that you desired tohave in writing the things which God of His grace had permitted me to see in my saidvoyage; therefor 
e to satisfy and accede to you desire,‡ I have reduced into this small book 
the principal things, in the best manner that I have been able.* Clement VII (Medici) was elected Pontiff in 1523, and died in 1534.
† Monterosi. Milan edition.
‡ The Milan editio
n attributes this desire to the Pope.
Finally (very illustrious lord), after all provisions had been made, and the vessels were inorder, the captain-general, a discreet and virtuous man, careful of his honour, would notcommence his voyage without first making some good and wholesome ordinances, such asit is the good custom to make for those who go to sea. Nevertheless he did not entirelydeclare the voyage which he was going to make, so that his men should not fromamazement and fear be unwilling to accomany him on so long a voyage, as he hadundertaken in his intention. Considering the great and impetuous storms* which are on theocean sea, where I wished to go,; and for another reason also, that is to say that the mastersand captains of the other ships of his company did not love him: of this I do not know thereason, except by cause of his, the captain-general, being Portuguese, and they wereSpaniards or Castilians, who for a long time have been in rivalry and ill will with oneanother. Notwithstanding this all were obedient to him. He made his ordinances such asthose which follow, so that during the storms at sea, which often come on by night and day,his ships should not go away and separate from one another. These ordinances he publishedand made over in writing to each master of the ships, unless there were good and legitateexcuses, and appearance of not having been able to do otherwise.* Fortunes.Finally, the said captain-general willed that the vessel in which he himself was should go before the other vessels, and that the others should follow it; therefore he carried by nighton the poop of his ship a torch or faggot of burning wood, which they called farol, which burned all night, so that his ships should not lose sight of him. Sometimes he set a lantern,
sometimes a thick cord of reeds* was lighted, which was called trenche.† This is made of 
reeds well soaked in the water, and much beaten, then they are dried in the sun or in thesmoke, and it is a thing very suitable for such a matter. When the captain had made one of his signals to his people, they answered in the same way. In that manner they knew whether the ships were following and keeping together or not. And when he wished to take a tack onaccount of the chance of weather, or if the wind was contrary, or if he wished to make less
way, he had two lights shown; and if he wished the others to lower their small sail,‡ which
was a part of the sail attached to the great sail, he showed three lights. also by the threelights, notwithstanding that the wind was fair for going faster, he signalled that the studdingsail should be lowered; so that the great sail might be quicker and more easily struck andfurled when bad weather should suddenly set in, on account of some squall^ or otherwise.Likewise when the captain wished the other ships to lower the sail he had four lights shown,which shortly after he had put out and then showed a single one, which was a signal that hewished to stop there and turn, so that the other ships might do as he did.*Jonq.
† Estrenque, made of esparta.
‡ Bonnette = stun sail, formerly added below the square sail.
 ^ Groupade.Withal, when he discovered any land, or shoal, that is to say, a rock at sea, he made severallights be shown or had a bombard fired off. If he wished to make sail, he signalled to theother ships with four lights, so that they should do as he did, and follow him. He alwayscarried this said lantern suspended to the poop of his vessel. Also when he wished the
studding sail to be replaced with the great sail, he showed three lights. And to know whether all the ships followed him and were coming together, he showed one light only besides thefarol, and then each of the ships showed another light, which was an answering signal.Besides the above-mentioned ordinances for carrying on seamanship as is fitting, and toavoid the dangers which may come upon those who do not keep watch, the said captain,who was expert in the things required for navigation, ordered that three watches should bekept at night. The first was at the beginning of the night, the second at midnight, and thethird towards break of day, which is commonly called
 La diane
, otherwise the star of the break of day. Every night these watches were changed; that is to say, he who had kept thefirst watch, on the following day kept the second, and he who had kept the second kept thethird; and so on they changed continually every night. The said captain commanded that hisregulations both for the signals and the watches should be well observed, so that their voyage should be made with greater security. The crews of this fleet were divided into threecompanies; the first belonged to the captain, the second to the pilot or 
, and the thirdto the master. These regulations having been made, the captain-general deliberated onsailing, as follows.Monday, the day of St. Lawrence, the 10th of August, in the year above mentioned [1519],the fleet, provided with what was necessary for it, and carrying crews of different nations, tothe number of two hundred and thirty seven men in all the five ships, was ready to set sailfrom the mole of Seville; and firing all the artillery, we made sail only on the foremast, andcame to the end of a river named Betis, which is now called Guadalcavir. In going alongthis river we passed by a place named Gioan de Farax, where there was* a large populationof Moors, and there was a bridge over the river by which one went to Seville. This bridgewas ruined, however there had remained two columns which are at the bottom of the water,on which account it is necessary to have people of the country of experience and knowledgeto point out the convenient spot for safely passing between these two columns, from fear of striking against them. Besides that, it is necessary in order to pass safely by this bridge and by other places on this river, that the water should be rather high. After having passed thetwo columns we came to another place named Coria, and passing by many little villageslying along the said river, at last we arrived at a castle, which belongs to the Duke of Medina Sidonia, named St. Lucar, where there is a port from which to enter the ocean sea. Itis entered by the east wind and you go out be the west wind. Near there is the cape of St.Vincent, which, according to cosmography, is in thirty-seven degrees of latitude, at twentymiles distance from the said port; and from the aforesaid town to this port by the river thereare thirty-five or forty miles. A few days afterwards the captain-general came along the saidriver with his boat, and the masters of the other ships with him, and we remained some daysin this port to supply the fleet with some necessary things. We went every day to hear masson shore, at a church named Our Lady of Barrameda, towards St. Lucar. There the captaincommanded that all the men of the fleet should confess before going on any further, inwhich he himself showed the way to the others. Besides he did not choose that anyoneshould bring any married woman, or others to the ships, for several good considerations.* Milan edition adds here,

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