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# bas_str

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10/23/2013

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Dr. D. B. Wallace
Basic Stress Equations
Internal Reactions:
6 Maximum
(3 Force Components& 3 Moment Components)
Normal Force)
ττ
()
σσ
(Shear Forces
zxy
PV
y
V
x
Torsional Moment)
ττ
()
σσ
(Bending Moments
zxy
TM
y
M
x
or Torque
Force Components Moment Components
"Cut Surface""Cut Surface"Centroid of Cross SectionCentroid of Cross Section
Normal Force:
Axial Force
zxy
P
Centroid
σσ
Axial Stress

"Cut Surface"
σ =
PA
l
Uniform over the entire cross section.
l
Axial force must go through centroid.
Shear Forces:
Cross SectionyAa
Point of interestLINE perpendicular to V through point of interest= Length of LINE on the cross section= Area on one side of the LINECentroid of entire cross sectionCentroid of area on one side of the LINE= distance between the two centroids= Area moment of inertia of entire cross sectionabout an axis pependicular to V.
VbAayI
"y" Shear Force
zxy
V
y
"x" Shear Force
zxy
V
x
ττττ
τ =
VAyIb
a
b g
Note
:
The maximum shear stress for common cross sections are:
Cross Section:Cross Section:
Rectangular:
τ
max
=
32VA
Solid Circular:
τ
max
=
43VA
I-Beam or H-Beam:webflange
τ
max
=
VA
web
Thin-walledtube:
τ
max
=
2VA

Basic Stress EquationsDr. D. B. Wallace
Torque or Torsional Moment:
Solid Circular or Tubular Cross Section:
r = Distance from shaft axis to point of interestR = Shaft RadiusD = Shaft Diameter
JDJDD
forsolidcircularshaftsforhollowshafts
oi
===π ππ
4444
32232
e j
Torque
zx

y
T
"Cut Surface"
ττ
τ =
TJ
τπτπ
maxmax
==
1616
344
TDTDDD
forsolidcircularshaftsforhollowshafts
ooi
e j
Rectangular Cross Section:
Torque
zx

y
T
Centroid
ττ
Torsional Stress
"Cut Surface"
ττ
12
abNote:a > bCross Section:
Method 1:
τ τ
max
.
= = +
122
318Tabab
b g e j
ONLY
applies to the center of the longest side
Method 2:
τα
12122
, ,
=
Tab
a/b
αα αα
1.0.208.2081.5.231.2692.0.246.3093.0.267.3554.0.282.3786.0.299.4028.0.307.41410.0.313.421
.333----Use the appropriate
αα
from the tableon the right to get the shear stress ateither position
1
or
2
.
Other Cross Sections:

Basic Stress EquationsDr. D. B. Wallace
Bending Moment
"x" Bending Moment
zx

yzxy
M
x
σσσσ
M
y
"y" Bending Moment
σ σ==
MyIandMxI
xxyy
where:
Mx
and
My
y
and
x
are perpendicular from indicated axes
Ix
and
Iy
are moments of inertia about indicated axes
Moments of Inertia:
hc bDc

I bhhZIc bh
isperpendiculartoaxis
== =
32
126IDZIcD
=== ==π ππ π
4433
644324
Parallel Axis Theorem:
I = Moment of inertia about new axis
= +
2
centroiddnew axisArea, A
I
= Moment of inertia about the centroidal axisA = Area of the regiond = perpendicular distance between the two axes.
Maximum Bending Stress Equations:
σπ
max
=
32
3
MD
SolidCircular
b g
σ
max
=
6
2
M bh
Rectangular
a f
σ
max
==
McIMZ
The section modulus,
Z
, can be found in many tables of properties of common cross sections (i.e., I-beams,channels, angle iron, etc.).
Bending Stress Equation Based on Known Radius of Curvature of Bend,
ρ

ρ
.
The beam is assumed to be initially straight. The applied moment,
M
, causes the beam to assume a radius of curvature,
ρρ
.
Before:After:M

M
ρρ
σρ=
Ey
E
= Modulus of elasticity of the beam material
y
= Perpendicular distance from the centroidal axis to the point of interest (same
y
as with bending of astraight beam with
Mx
).
ρρ
= radius of curvature to centroid of cross section3