is a theoretical gas composed of a set of randoml
-moving, non-interacting point particles.
At normal conditions such as standard temperature and pressure, most real gases behavequalitativel
like an ideal gas.Man
gases such as air, nitrogen, ox
drogen, noble gases, and some heavier gases likecarbon dioxide can be treated like ideal gases within reasonable tolerances.
Criteria for ideal gas model:
, a gas behaves more like an ideal gas at higher temperature and lower pressure as thework performed b
intermolecular forces becomes less significant compared with the particles'kinetic energ
, and the size of the molecules becomes less significant compared to the empt
space between them.
Equation of state
equation of state
is a relation between state variables. It describes the state of matter under agiven set of ph
The most prominent use of an equation of state is to predict the state of gases and liquids.2.
In addition to predicting the behavior of gases and liquids, there are also equations of state for predicting the volume of solids, including the transition of solids from onecr
stalline state to another.
hy Different Equations?
One of the simplest equations of state for this purpose is the ideal gas law, which is roughl
accurate for gases at low pressures and moderate temperatures. However, this equation becomesincreasingl
inaccurate at higher pressures and lower temperatures, and fails to predictcondensation from a gas to a liquid. Therefore, a number of much more accurate equations of state have been developed for gases and liquids. At present, there is no single equation of statethat accuratel
predicts the properties of all substances under all conditions.