Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
P. 1
An efficient and distributed file search in unstructured peer-to-peer networks

An efficient and distributed file search in unstructured peer-to-peer networks

Ratings: (0)|Views: 43|Likes:
Published by Mohammad Shojafar
Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are gaining increased attention from both the scientific community and the larger Internet user community. Data retrieval algorithms lie at the center of P2P networks, and this paper addresses the problem of efficiently searching for files in unstructured P2P system. We propose an Improved Adaptive Probabilistic Search (IAPS) algorithm that is fully distributed and bandwidth effcient. IAPS uses ant-colony optimization and takes file types into consideration in order to search for file container nodes with a high probability of success. We have performed extesive simulations to study the performance of IAPS, and we compare it with the Random Walk and Adaptive Probabilistic
Search algorithms. Our experimental results show that IAPS achieves high success rates, high response rates, and significant message reduction.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are gaining increased attention from both the scientific community and the larger Internet user community. Data retrieval algorithms lie at the center of P2P networks, and this paper addresses the problem of efficiently searching for files in unstructured P2P system. We propose an Improved Adaptive Probabilistic Search (IAPS) algorithm that is fully distributed and bandwidth effcient. IAPS uses ant-colony optimization and takes file types into consideration in order to search for file container nodes with a high probability of success. We have performed extesive simulations to study the performance of IAPS, and we compare it with the Random Walk and Adaptive Probabilistic
Search algorithms. Our experimental results show that IAPS achieves high success rates, high response rates, and significant message reduction.

More info:

Categories:Types, Graphic Art
Published by: Mohammad Shojafar on Oct 23, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
See more
See less

02/20/2014

 
  L  J  Q   M  Y  Y  Q  J   \  M  B
Mn ollc`cont mng gcstrcautog lcbo somr`h cn unstru`turogpoor-tj-poor notwjrfs
Djhmddmg Phjkmlmr
 &
 Kodmb H. Mamwmky
 &
[cm Gobfhmh
 &
 Mbc Mhdmgc
 &
 [mhrm Yjjrmncmn
 &
Mkcth Marmhmd
Qo`ocvog; 1= Dmr`h 19=0 /M``optog; 3 Poptodaor 19=0
#
Pprcneor P`con`o+Auscnoss Dogcm Now Sjrf 19=0
Mastrm`t
 Yoor-tj-poor (Y1Y) notwjrfs mro emcncne cn`romsogmttontcjn lrjd ajth tho s`contclc` `jdduncty mng tho bmreor Cntornot usor `jdduncty. Gmtm rotrcovmb mbejrcthds bco mt tho`ontor jl Y1Y notwjrfs, mng thcs pmpor mggrossos tho prjabodjl ollc`contby somr`hcne ljr lcbos cn unstru`turog Y1Y systods.Uo prjpjso mn Cdprjvog Mgmptcvo Yrjamacbcstc` Pomr`h(CMYP) mbejrcthd thmt cs lubby gcstrcautog mng amngwcgth ollc-`cont. CMYP usos mnt-`jbjny jptcdczmtcjn mng tmfos lcbo typoscntj `jnscgormtcjn cn jrgor tj somr`h ljr lcbo `jntmcnor njgoswcth m hceh prjamacbcty jl su``oss. Uo hmvo porljrdog oxton-scvo scdubmtcjns tj stugy tho porljrdmn`o jl CMYP, mng wo`jdpmro ct wcth tho Qmngjd Umbf mng Mgmptcvo Yrjamacbcstc`Pomr`h mbejrcthds. Jur oxporcdontmb rosubts shjw thmt CMYPm`hcovos hceh su``oss rmtos, hceh rospjnso rmtos, mng scenclc-`mnt dossmeo rogu`tcjn.
Foywjrgs
 _nstru`turogpoor-tj-poor  .Mgmptcvoprjamacbcstc`somr`h .Mnt`jbjny .Pu``ossrmto .Cnljrdmtcjnrotrcovmb
= Cntrjgu`tcjn
M poor-tj-poor (Y1Y) notwjrf cs m gcstrcautog systod cn whc`h`jdputcne njgos odpbjy gcstrcautog rosjur`os tj porljrd m `rctc`mb lun`tcjn cn m go`ontrmbczog dmnnor. Njgos cn m Y1Ynotwjrf njrdmbby pbmy oqumb rjbos mng mro thoroljro `mbbog
 poors
. Pcn`o Y1Y systods mro `mpmabo jl somr`hcne mng `jd-dunc`mtcnem`rjsstho ebjao,thoyhmvoao`jdophonjdonmbby pjpubmr cn ro`ont yomrs V=T. Oxmdpbos jl Y1Y mppbc`mtcjns mrogcstrcautog lcbo-shmrcne systods, ovont njtclc`mtcjn sorvc`os,mng `hmt sorvc`os V1
 ‐ 
?T.Y1Y notwjrfs `mn eonormbby ao `bmssclcog, amsog jn tho`jntrjb jvor whoro gmtm mro bj`mtog mng tho notwjrf tjpjb-jey, ms stru`turog jr unstru`turog V<T. Cn mn unstru`turogY1Y notwjrf su`h ms Enutobbm  http;//www.enutobbm.`jd, poors mro typc`mbby `jnno`tog tj m rmngjd sot jl nocehajrs.Whoro mro nj rubos thmt strc`tby golcno whoro gmtm cs stjrog mngwhc`h njgos mro nocehajrs. Djrojvor, ms thoro cs nj noog tjdmcntmcn pmrtc`ubmr notwjrf mr`hcto`turo, unstru`turog Y1Ysystods mro vory ollc`cont whon njgos kjcn jr bomvo thonotwjrf.Cn `jntrmst, stru`turog Y1Y notwjrfs hmvo wobb-golcnognocehajr bcnfs mng `mn ao lurthor `bmssclcog ms bjjsoby stru`-turog jr hcehby stru`turog. Cn hcehby stru`turog Y1Y notwjrfssu`h ms tho notwjrf cn @hjrg V5T, tho nocehajrs jl njgos, thonotwjrf mr`hcto`turo, mng tho bj`mtcjns ljr stjrcne gmtm mro pro`csoby spo`clcog. Cn bjjsoby stru`turog Y1Y notwjrfs su`hms Lroonot V8T mng Pydphjny V3T, tho jvorbmy stru`turo mng gmtm bj`mtcjns mro njt pro`csoby gotordcnog. Cn Lroonot V8T, ajth tho jvorbmy tjpjbjey mng tho gmtm bj`mtcjn mro gotor-dcnog amsog jn hcnts, mng tho notwjrf tjpjbjey ovontumbbyovjbvoscntjsjdocntongogstru`turo.CnPydphjny,thojvorbmy
D. Phjkmlmr (
*
)Gopmrtdont jl Cnljrdmtcjn Onecnoorcne, Obo`trjnc`s mngWobo`jddunc`mtcjn (GCOW),
 ‒
Pmpconzm 
 _ncvorscty jl Qjdo,\cm Ougjsscmnm =8, 99=87 Qjdo, Ctmbyo-dmcb; PhjkmlmrIgcot.uncrjdm=.ct D. Phjkmlmo-dmcb; d.shjkmlmrIymhjj.`jdK. H. MamwmkyPoncjr COOO Dodaors, P`hjjb jl Cnljrdmtcjn Wo`hnjbjey, Gomfcn_ncvorscty, Umurn Yjngs, Mustrmbcm [. Gobfhmh
;
M. MhdmgcGopmrtdont jl Obo`trc`mb mng @jdputor Onecnoorcne, ]mzvcn Csbmdc`Mzmg _ncvorscty, ]mzvcn, Crmn[. YjjrmncmnGopmrtdont jl @jdputor Onecnoorcne, Csbmdc` Mzmg _ncvorscty,Mngcdoshb Armn`h, Mngcdoshf, CrmnM. MarmhmdDm`hcnoCntobbceon`oQosomr`hBmas(DCQBmas),Muaurn,UM,_PMYoor-tj-Yoor Notw. Mppb.GJC =9.=995/s=1980-9=0-910<-9
 
  L  J  Q   M  Y  Y  Q  J   \  M  B
tjpjbjey cs gotordcnog prjamacbcstc`mbby aut gmtm bj`mtcjns mro pro`csoby golcnog.Who prcn`cpmb roqucrodont cn mny poor-tj-poor notwjrf csollc`cont somr`hcne ljr goscrog rosjur`os su`h ms gmtm jr lcbos.Hourcstc` mng dotm-hourcstc` dothjgs hmvo prjvon tj ao ollc-`cont ljr sjbvcne dmny hmrg notwjrf somr`h prjabods. Whoy mrombsj godjnstrmtcne thocr usolubnoss cn tho Y1Y notwjrf gjdmcn,ospo`cmbby ljr unstru`turog Y1Y notwjrfs. Mnt @jbjnyJptcdczmtcjn (M@J) V=9T cs cnspcrog ay jasorvmtcjns jl tholjrmecneaohmvcjr jlrombmnt `jbjncos.Uhcbodjvcnelrjdljjgsjur`os tj tho nost mng vc`o vorsm, mnts gopjsct m suastmn`o`mbbog
 phorjdjno
 jn tho erjung, ljrdcne m phorjdjno trmcb.Uhon`hjjscnethocrwmy,mnts`mnsdobbphorjdjnomngtongtj`hjjso pmths dmrfog ay strjneby prjamabo phorjdjno `jn`on-trmtcjns. Uhcbo mn csjbmtog mnt djvos prm`tc`mbby mt rmngjd, mnmnt on`juntorcne m provcjusby bmcg trmcb `mn goto`t ct mng go`cgotj ljbbjw ct wcth hceh prjamacbcty, thus rocnljr`cne tho trmcb wcthcts jwn phorjdjno. Who `jbbo`tcvo aohmvcjr thmt odoreos cs m ljrd jl mutj`mtmbytc` prj`oss whoro tho djro tho mnts ljbbjw m trmcb, tho djro mttrm`tcvo thmt trmcb ao`jdos ljr ljbbjwcne. Who prj`osscsthus`hmrm`torczogaympjsctcvo loogam`fbjjp,whorotho prjamacbcty wcth whc`h mn mnt `hjjsos m pmth cn`romsos wcththo nudaor jl mnts thmt hmvo provcjusby `hjson tho smdo pmth.Whcs dothjgcs jnojl tho mpprjm`hosthmt s`hjbmrs hmvo mppbcogtj unstru`turog Y1Y notwjrfs cn tho bmst go`mgo, cn`bugcneMntNot V==T, Mnthcbb V=1T, MntPomr`h V=0T, PodMnt V=7T, M@J-amsog Pomr`h V=?T, mng MYP V=<T. Cn tho noxt so`tcjn, tho bmst throo mpprjm`hos mro gcs`ussog cn djro gotmcb.Cn thcs pmpor, wo prosont m njvob Cdprjvog MgmptcvoYrjamacbcstc` Pomr`h (CMYP) mbejrcthd ljr bj`mtcne lcbos cn un-stru`turog Y1Y notwjrfs. Uo lj`us jn unstru`turog Y1Y not-wjrfs ao`muso djst pjpubmr Y1Y mppbc`mtcjns jpormto jn un-stru`turog notwjrfs. Who hcehby trmnscont njgo pjpubmtcjns mngmg hj` jremnczmtcjn jl unstru`turog Y1Y notwjrfs dmfo ct du`h djro `hmbbonecne tj bj`mto goscrog rosjur`os cn thosonotwjrfsthmncnstru`turogY1Ynotwjrfs.@jnvontcjnmbsomr`hdothjgs ljr unstru`turog Y1Y notwjrfs uso lbjjgcne mng ctsvmrcmtcjnsjrvmrcjustyposjlcngc`osthmtmro quctooxponscvo tjdmcntmcn, dmy njt s`mbo wobb V=5T, mng `mn cn`ur homvy jvor-homgV=8T.Cn`jntrmst,CMYP`jnscgorstholcbo
stypomngms`jro amsog jn provcjus somr`hos ljr thcs lcbo typo tj dcncdczo thosomr`h spm`o mng, ms m rosubt, tho somr`h jvorhomg. Uo porljrdog oxtonscvo scdubmtcjns tj stugy tho porljrdmn`o jl CMYP, mng wo `jdpmrog cts porljrdmn`o wcth tho pjpubmr Qmngjd Umbf mng Mgmptcvo Yrjamacbcstc` Pomr`h (MYP) mbej-rcthds. Jur oxporcdontmb rosubts shjw thmt CMYP m`hcovos m  aottor trmgo-jll aotwoon somr`h `jst mng porljrdmn`o thmn ajthQmngjd Umbf mng MYP ljr m wcgo rmneo jl Y1Y s`onmrcjs.Who rodmcngor jl thcs pmpor cs jremnczog ms ljbbjws.Po`tcjn 1 gos`rcaos robmtog wjrf. Po`tcjn 0 prjvcgos tho systod djgob jl jur wjrfs. Po`tcjn 7 prosonts tho gotmcbs jl CMYP, jur prjpjsog somr`h dothjg. Po`tcjn ? mnmbyzos tho porljrdmn`o jl CMYP mng `jdpmros ct wcth tho Qmngjd Umbf mng MYP mbejrcthds. Lcnmbby, Po`tcjn < prosonts jur `jn`bu-scjns mng luturo rosomr`h gcro`tcjns.
1 Qobmtog wjrf 
Dmny somr`h mbejrcthds ljr unstru`turog Y1Y notwjrfs hmvo aoon prjpjsog cn ro`ont yomrs. Who mbejrcthds `mn ao `bmssc-lcog ms gotordcncstc` jr prjamacbcstc`. Cn m gotordcncstc` mp- prjm`h V=3, 19T, quory ljrwmrgcne cs gotordcncstc`, whcbo cn m   prjamacbcstc` mpprjm`h V1=, 11T, quory ljrwmrgcne cs prjamac- bcstc`, rmngjd, jr amsog jn rosjur`o rmnfcne. Pomr`hcnes`hodos cn unstru`turog Y1Y systods `mn mbsj ao `mtoejrczogms roeubmr-ermcnog jr `jmrso-ermcnog. Cn m roeubmr-ermcnog mp- prjm`h, mbb njgos pmrtc`cpmto cn quory ljrwmrgcne. Cn m `jmrso-ermcnog s`hodo, quory ljrwmrgcne cs porljrdog ay jnby m suasot jl tho njgos cn tho notwjrf. Oxcstcne somr`h dothjgs`mn mbsj ao `bmssclcog cntj abcng somr`hos mng cnljrdogsomr`hos V=<, 11T. Cn abcng somr`hos, njgos gj njt stjro cnljr- dmtcjn majut gmtm bj`mtcjns, whcbo cn cnljrdog somr`hos6njgos stjro sjdo dotmgmtm thmt lm`cbctmtos tho somr`h.Lbjjgcne-amsogsomr`hcnecsthodjst`jddjnbyusogdoth-jg tj bj`mto spo`clc` gmtm ctods http;//www.enutobbm.`jd.Lbjjgcne cnvjbvos m aromgth-lcrst somr`h (ALP) jl tho jvorbmynotwjrf ermph, wcth tho quorycne njgo `jntm`tcne njgos thmt mro rom`hmabo wcthcn m spo`clcog tcdo-tj-bcvo (WWB) nudaor jl hjps. Wj porljrd thcs somr`h, tho quorycne njgo songs m quoryroquost tj mbb jl cts nocehajrs. Uhon m nocehajr ro`ocvos thoquory,ctroturnsthorosubtclcthmsthoroquostoggmtm.Jthorwcso,ct ljrwmrgs tho quory roquost tj mbb jl cts nocehajrs ox`opt thoquorycne njgo. Whcs prj`oguro `jntcnuos untcb tho gopth bcdct tcdo-tj-bcvo (WWB) cs rom`hog. Mbthjueh lbjjgcne cs m scdpbombejrcthd, ct eonormtos m bmreo nudaor jl dossmeos (dmny mrogupbc`mto dossmeos) mng gjos njt s`mbo wobb. Povormb mp- prjm`hos hmvo aoon prjpjsog tj mggross thcs prjabod. Whosocn`bugo vmrcmtcjns jn m gopth-lcrst somr`h (GLP) thmt, ljr oxmd- pbo, uso rjutcne cngc`os V10T, mn mttonumtog abjjd lcbtor V=3T, mng Pu``osslub Ymths cn _nstru`turog Notwjrfs jr PY_N V17T.Whoy mbsj cn`bugo ALP vmrcmtcjns su`h ms ctormtcvo gooponcneV19T,mrmngjd
-wmbfV<T,mdjgclcogrmngjdALPV1?T,mtwj- bovob rmngjd
 f 
-wmbf V1=T, m gcro`tog ALP V19T, mn cntobbceont  somr`h V1?T, m somr`h amsog jn bj`mb cngc`os V19T, tho Mgmptcvo Yrjamacbcstc` Pomr`h V11T, mng m somr`h amsog jn gjdcnmtcnesots V1<T. Cn tho ctormtcvo gooponcne mng bj`mb cngox somr`hos,quorcos mro ljrwmrgog tj mbb nocehajrs jl tho ljrwmrgcne njgo,whcbo cn mbb jthor s`hodos, quorcos mro ljrwmrgog jnby tj m suasot jl thjso nocehajrs.Who Mgmptcvo Qmngjdczog Pomr`h Yrjtj`jb (MQPY) V15T csmn oxtonscjn jl tho ]ujrud-Amsog Yrjtj`jb ljr Pomr`hcneJako`ts cnYoor-tj-Yoor Notwjrfsthmtdcncdczostho prjtj`jb
s`jddunc`mtcjn `jst ay gcssodcnmtcne jako`ts tj njgos amsogjn pjpubmrcty cngc`os. Mbthjueh tho prjtj`jb mutjdmtc`mbbymgmpts tj tho gynmdc`s jl m notwjrf onvcrjndont, ct gjos njt 
Yoor-tj-Yoor Notw. Mppb.
 
  L  J  Q   M  Y  Y  Q  J   \  M  B
`jnscgorlcbotyposljrporljrdcnethosomr`h.Mnontctyrotrcovmbdjgob wcth m `jdprossog cngox gmtm stru`turo cs prosontog cnV18T. M supor-poor-amsog `jjrgcnmtog sorvc`o prjvcscjn lrmdo-wjrf (P@PY), `jnscstcne jl m supor-poor-amsog bmajr dmrfot (P-bmajr dmrfot) djgob, m ro`ructcne prjtj`jb amsog jn m wocehtcne do`hmncsd, mng mn jptcdmb gcspmt`h mbejrcthd, cs prjpjsog cn V13T. Mbthjueh thcs lrmdowjrf hms ejjg s`mbmacb-cty mng rjaustnoss, ct tmfos m bjne tcdo ljr tho mbejrcthd tjmgmpt tj tho gynmdc` onvcrjndont jl unstru`turog Y1Y sys-tods. Mn mpprjm`h thmt dcncdczos gmtm prj`osscne tcdo ay`hjjscne m sot jl poors amsog jn thocr `jdputmtcjn mng `jd-dunc`mtcjn `mpmacbctcos cs gcs`ussog cn V09T.PY_N V17T cs m `jntrjbbog lbjjgcne mbejrcthd cn whc`hom`h njgo prjamacbcstc`mbby ljrwmrgs quorcos tj cts nocehajrs.Om`h poor foops m bj`mb cngox jl cts nocehajrs
 robmtcvo prja-macbctcos jl su``osslubby bj`mtcne gmtm. Pomr`hcne cs amsog jntho quorycne poor 
s scdubtmnojus gopbjydont jl 
 
 wmbforsthmtmrosobo`togprjamacbcstc`mbby,amsogjnthoquorycnepoor 
sbj`mb cngox. Om`h wmbfor trmvobs mbjne cts jwn pmth cn thonotwjrf mng roturns m hct jr m dcss dossmeo tj tho jrcecnmtjr mbjne tho rovorso quory pmth. M poor thmt lcngs tho roquostogjako`t cn cts bj`mb stjrmeo roturns m hct mng tho quory cstordcnmtog. Jthorwcso, tho quory cs ljrwmrgog tj tho noxt nocehajr. Cl m lcbo cs njt ljung wcthcn tho WWB porcjg, tho poor roturns m dcss. Om`h poor cn`bugos cts prjlcbo cn mny dossmeo(quory, hct, dcss) thmt ct songs, mng om`h poor mbjne tho quory pmth, ox`bugcne tho jno lmrthost lrjd tho roquostjr, songs ctsrobmtcvo prjamacbcty jl su``oss am`f tj cts provcjus nocehajr cnthoquorypmth.Om`hcntordogcmtopoormbjnethorovorsoquory pmth usos thcs cnljrdmtcjn tj upgmto cts bj`mb cngox.Mn mbtornmtcvo mpprjm`h tj lbjjgcne cs tho Qmngjd Umbf mbejrcthd. Cn tho stmngmrg Qmngjd Umbf mbejrcthd, tho quo-rycne njgo ljrwmrgs tho quory dossmeo tj jno rmngjdbysobo`tog nocehajr. Whcs nocehajr rmngjdby `hjjsos jno jl ctsnocehajrsmngljrwmrgsthoquorydossmeotjthmtnocehajr.Whcs prj`oguro `jntcnuos untcb tho gmtm cs ljung. Who stmngmrgQmngjd Umbf mbejrcthd `mn eromtby rogu`o tho dossmeojvorhomg aut cn`urs m bjneor somr`h gobmy. Who
 
-wmbfor Qmngjd Umbf mbejrcthd V<T mttodpts tj rogu`o tho somr`hgobmy ay hmvcne tho quorycne njgo ljrwmrg
 
 `jpcos jl thoquory dossmeo tj
 f 
 rmngjdby sobo`tog nocehajrs. Om`h quorydossmeo tmfos cts jwn rmngjdwmbf. Om`h wmbforporcjgc`mbby`jddunc`mtos wcth tho quorycne njgo tj go`cgo whothor thmt wmbfor shjubg tordcnmto. Njgos `mn mbsj uso sjlt stmtos tjljrwmrg gclloront wmbfors ljr tho smdo quory tj gclloront nocehajrs. Jn tho mvormeo, tho tjtmb nudaor jl njgos rom`hog ay
 f 
 rmngjd wmbfors cn
 H 
 hjps cs tho smdo ms tho nudaor jl njgos rom`hog ay jno wmbfor cn
 fH 
 hjps, sj tho rjutcne gobmycs oxpo`tog tj ao
 
 tcdos sdmbbor whon
 
 wmbfors mro usogrmthor thmn m scnebo wmbfor.Cn V=?T, tho muthjrs hmvo prosontog m now M@J-amsogsomr`h cn MntNot V==T, m dothjg thmt usos twj tmabos (c.o.,bj`mbcnljrdmtcjnmngrjutcnetmabos).Whcsdothjgcsscdcbmrtjjur mpprjm`h, whc`h somr`hos tho bj`mb gmtmamso aoljro trmns-dcttcne m quory roquost tj mvmcbmabo nocehajrs. Ajth dothjgsuso Cntornot @jntrjb Dossmeo Yrjtj`jb (C@DY) pm`fots tjmvjcg notwjrf `jneostcjn jr jvorsuas`rcptcjn, ms wobb msmvjcgcne roquostog sorvc`os njt aocne mvmcbmabo mng m hjsts,rjutor, mng nocehajr njgos aocne unrom`hmabo, mng mbsj tjrobmy quory dossmeos. Ajth dothjgs uso ljrwmrg mng am`f-wmrg mnts wcth scdcbmr gotmcbs, provontcne bjjps mng `y`bos tj`jdpob tho ljrwmrg mnt tj `jdo am`f tj tho nost mltor lcngcnemnmvmcbmabo gostcnmtcjnpoorljr tho foywjrg (c.o.,jur dothjgusos tho ontcro WWB gomgbcno ljr tho ljrwmrg mnt mng cngc`mtostho WWB cn somr`hcne quorcos, aut wcth gclloront pjbc`cos). Who phorjdjno trmcb upgmtcne pjbc`y cn jur dothjg cs `jdpbotobygclloront lrjd tho pjbc`y cn V=?T, aut ajth upgmto tho trmcb aytho am`fwmrg mnt ljr om`h quory roquost. Jur djgob cs amsogjnEontubbm,whcbothoamsc`djgobjlV=?T`jdoslrjdMntNoV==T. Who dothjg cn V=?T gjos njt `jntrjb amngwcgth mng bmton`y, njr gjos jur mpprjm`h.Cn mnjthor wjrf V=7T, tho muthjrs prosontog tho PodMnt dothjg ljr gcstrcautog quory rjutcne ay tho M@J dotm-hourcstc` mbejrcthd cn lcxog mng mg hj` notwjrfs wcth `hurn poors. Ajth jur dothjg mng tho PodMnt dothjg uso roputm-tcjn bomrncne, dmnmeo gj`udont ropjsctjrcos, mng bomg thocr gmtm tj tho jthor poors cn somr`hcne quorcos, mng ajth porljrdfoywjrg-amsogsomr`hosjnthocrdotm-gmtm.Ajthdothjgsusocngopongont ljrwmrg mng am`fwmrg mnts tj rowmrg tho njgosthmt tmfo pmrt cn quory j``urron`os, mng ajth dothjgs usoljrwmrg mng am`fwmrg mnts tj somr`h tho quory roquost lrjdvcsctog poors mng cntordogcmto poors.Whodothjgjls`jrcne cnPodMnt cs amsog jn roeubmrby upgmtcne phorjdjno mng ovmp-jrmtcnephorjdjnomngcsgcllorontlrjdjurprjpjsogdothjg.Jurdothjgusosmnudaors`jrcnesystodljrthocntordogcmtomng gostcnmtcjn poors, sj thmt ct `mn porljrd m aottor somr`h ljr lcbotypos ljr scdcbmr quorcos cntho noxtphmso,ao`muso wopmymttontcjn tj tho typos jl lcbos roquostog ay quorcos. M s`jro`jrrospjngs tj om`h typo, tj hobp now quorcos ljr gclloront typos somr`h djro omscby thmn PodMnt, whc`h somr`hos om`hnjgo amsog jn tho `urront tmabo
s prjamacbcty ljr njgos mltor ovmpjrmtcjn.Uo njto thmt wo mbsj uso mn ovmpjrmtcjn rubo, aut njt ms m prjamacbcty; jur rogu`tcjn cs amsog jn cntorvmbs, msgcs`ussog cn tho noxt so`tcjn. Nocthor dothjg cs mabo tj `jn-scgor tho cdpm`t jl amngwcgth mng bmton`y cn tho sobo`tcjn phmso ljr lcngcne tho aost vcsctog pmths. Ajth dothjgs uso tho`jn`opt jlrmngjdbomlsobo`tcjn. WhomuthjrscnV=7T djgobog
Wmabo =
 ]uory tmabo stmtus cngoxog ljr om`h njgoLcbo typo Lcbo ljrdmt Nudaor jl `jpcos lcbos P`jro jl lcbos\cgoj *.0ep ?99 89Mugcj *.dp0 099 199Gj`udont *.gj` 199 =099Yoor-tj-Yoor Notw. Mppb.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->