Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
e-Quarterly Research Bulletin - Volume 4, Number 1

e-Quarterly Research Bulletin - Volume 4, Number 1

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1|Likes:
In this issue of e-Quarterly Research Bulletin: Innovations and Shortfalls in Fragile State Interventions; A ZEN Approach to Post-2015 Addressing the Range of Perspectives across Asia and the Pacific; Setting Cost Recoverable Tariffs for Expanding Water Services to Poor Households.
In this issue of e-Quarterly Research Bulletin: Innovations and Shortfalls in Fragile State Interventions; A ZEN Approach to Post-2015 Addressing the Range of Perspectives across Asia and the Pacific; Setting Cost Recoverable Tariffs for Expanding Water Services to Poor Households.

More info:

Published by: Asian Development Bank on Oct 24, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/24/2013

pdf

text

original

 
1
Volume 4 Number 1
dŚĞŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŽĨĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞƌĞĐŽŐŶŝnjĞƐƚŚĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐĨĂĐŝŶŐĨƌĂŐŝůĞƐƚĂƚĞƐ͕
1
ďƵƚŚĂƐŶŽƚƉƌŽĚƵĐĞĚĂƵŶŝĮĞĚŐůŽďĂůĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚƚŽƚŚĞŝƌĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ͘ƐĂƌĞƐƵůƚ͕ŵĂŶLJĚŽŶŽƌƐŚĂǀĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ
ŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶͲƐƉĞĐŝĮĐĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚĞƐ
ƚŽƐĞƌǀŝĐĞĚĞůŝǀĞƌLJĂŶĚƐƚĂƚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐŝŶĨƌĂŐŝůĞĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͘ǀĂůƵĂƟŽŶƐƚƵĚŝĞƐŽĨƚŚĞƐĞĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚĞƐƌĞǀĞĂů
ƚƌĂŶƐĨĞƌĂďůĞŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ
ŝŶŬĞLJƐĞĐƚŽƌƐƐƵĐŚĂƐŚĞĂůƚŚ͕ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ƐĞĐƵƌŝƚLJĂŶĚũƵƐƟĐĞ͕ĂŶĚǁĂƚĞƌĂŶĚƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ͘zĞƚƚŚĞLJĂůƐŽůĞŶĚƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĨŽƌĂƵŶŝĮĞĚĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚďLJŝůůƵŵŝŶĂƟŶŐ
ĚĞƐŝŐŶƐŚŽƌƞĂůůƐ
 ƚŚĂƚĂƌĞĐŽŶƐŝƐƚĞŶƚĂĐƌŽƐƐĚŽŶŽƌƐĂŶĚŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ͘
tŚĂƚŝƐĂ&ƌĂŐŝůĞ^ŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ͍
tŚŝůĞŵĂŶLJĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐĨĂĐĞŐƌŽǁƚŚĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͕ƚŚŽƐĞǁŚŝĐŚĂƌĞĂůƐŽĨƌĂŐŝůĞĨĂĐĞĐŽŵƉŽƵŶĚĞĚĂŶĚĚĞĞƉůLJĞŵďĞĚĚĞĚƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůǁĞĂŬŶĞƐƐĞƐƚŚĂƚĐĂŶĚĞĐŝƐŝǀĞůLJƌĞǀĞƌƐĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŐĂŝŶƐŽǀĞƌŶŝŐŚƚ͘dŚĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐŽĨƚŚĞƐĞǁĞĂŬŶĞƐƐĞƐĂƌĞǀĂƌŝĞĚĂŶĚƐƉĂŶƚŚĞƐƉĞĐƚƌƵŵĨƌŽŵƉĞƌƐŝƐƚĞŶƚĚŽŵĞƐƟĐĐŽŶŇŝĐƚƚŽĨƌĞƋƵĞŶƚŶĂƚƵƌĂůĚŝƐĂƐƚĞƌƐ͘dŚĞĐŽŵŵŽŶĞůĞŵĞŶƚĂŵŽŶŐƚŚĞŵŝƐƚŚĞŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJŽĨƚŚĞƐƚĂƚĞƚŽĂďƐŽƌď͕ĚĞƚĞƌ͕ĂŶĚͬŽƌƌĞĐŽǀĞƌĨƌŽŵƐŚŽĐŬƐ͘dŚĞƌĞĂƌĞƚǁŽĚŝƐƟŶŐƵŝƐŚŝŶŐĨĞĂƚƵƌĞƐǁŚŝĐŚƐĞƚĨƌĂŐŝůĞƐƚĂƚĞƐĂƉĂƌƚ͕ŽŶĞƌĞůĂƚĞĚƚŽĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐŽĨƚŚĞĚŽŵĞƐƟĐĞĐŽŶŽŵLJĂŶĚƚŚĞŽƚŚĞƌƌĞůĂƚĞĚƚŽĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞĨƌŽŵƚŚĞŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ͘ŽŵĞƐƟĐĂůůLJ͕ƚŚĞƌĞĂƌĞĂŶƵŵďĞƌŽĨƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůĂŶĚŐŽǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐƚŚĂƚĂƌĞĐŽŵŵŽŶĂŵŽŶŐĨƌĂŐŝůĞƐƚĂƚĞƐ;ƐĞĞ&ŝŐƵƌĞϭͿ͘^ƚĂƚĞƐŽŌĞŶĚŝƐƉůĂLJǁĞĂŬƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞŽǀĞƌŵƵůƟƉůĞŵĞĂƐƵƌĞƐ͘
* Alisa Di Caprio is a Regional Cooperation Specialist at ADB.1 OECD guidelines.
 
Economics and Research Department
 Volume 4 Number 1January–March 2013
&ĞĂƚƵƌĞƐ
ϭ
/ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƐĂŶĚ^ŚŽƌƞĂůůƐŝŶ&ƌĂŐŝůĞ^ƚĂƚĞ/ŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ
ϱ
EƉƉƌŽĂĐŚƚŽWŽƐƚͲϮϬϭϱĚĚƌĞƐƐŝŶŐƚŚĞZĂŶŐĞŽĨWĞƌƐƉĞĐƟǀĞƐĂĐƌŽƐƐƐŝĂĂŶĚƚŚĞWĂĐŝĮĐ
ϳ
^ĞƫŶŐŽƐƚZĞĐŽǀĞƌĂďůĞdĂƌŝīƐĨŽƌdžƉĂŶĚŝŶŐtĂƚĞƌ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞƐƚŽWŽŽƌ,ŽƵƐĞŚŽůĚƐ
WƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ
ϵ
ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐtŽƌŬŝŶŐWĂƉĞƌ^ĞƌŝĞƐ
ϭϬ
ZĞƉŽƌƚ
ǀĞŶƚƐ
ϭϬ
Ɖƌŝůʹ:ƵŶĞϮϬϭϯ
&ůĂŐƐŚŝƉ
ϭϮ
ƐŝĂŶĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚKƵƚůŽŽŬϮϬϭϯ
FEATURESCONTENTS
dŚĞĞͲYƵĂƌƚĞƌůLJZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚƵůůĞƟŶŝƐĂƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐĂŶĚZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞƐŝĂŶĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĂŶŬ͘ĐŽŵƉůĞƚĞůŝƐƚŽĨŽƵƌƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ͕ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐǁŽƌŬŝŶŐƉĂƉĞƌƐ͕ĐĂŶďĞĨŽƵŶĚŝŶǁǁǁ͘ĂĚď͘ŽƌŐͬĚĂƚĂͬŵĂŝŶ
;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚŽŶŶĞdžƚƉĂŐĞͿ
/ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƐĂŶĚ^ŚŽƌƞĂůůƐŝŶ&ƌĂŐŝůĞ^ƚĂƚĞ/ŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ
ůŝƐĂŝĂƉƌŝŽΎ
Figure 1
Characteristics of Fragility Structural andEconomic FactorsPolitical andInstitutional FactorsSocialFactorsInternationalFactors
ConflictCrisis of state legitimacyInequalityGlobal shocksNatural resource wealthPolitical repressionSocial exclusionLegacy of colonialismExport concentrationWeak institutionsSharp social divisionsClimate changePovertyLimited public resourcesWeak civil societ
Source: Adapted from Mcloughlin (2010).
 
Ϯ
ĞͲYƵĂƌƚĞƌůLJZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚƵůůĞƟŶ
FEATURES
;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚŽŶŶĞdžƚƉĂŐĞͿ
/ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƐĂŶĚ^ŚŽƌƞĂůůƐŝŶ&ƌĂŐŝůĞ^ƚĂƚĞ/ŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ
;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚĨƌŽŵƉĂŐĞϭͿ
/ŶƚĞƌŵƐŽĨŐŽǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞ͕ĨƌĂŐŝůĞƐƚĂƚĞƐĂƌĞƚŚŽƐĞŝŶǁŚŝĐŚƚŚĞŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚŝƐƵŶĂďůĞŽƌƵŶǁŝůůŝŶŐƚŽĚĞůŝǀĞƌĐŽƌĞĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐƚŽŝƚƐƉĞŽƉůĞ;&/ϮϬϬϱͿ͘dŚĞƐƚĂƚĞĂƉƉĂƌĂƚƵƐŝŶĨƌĂŐŝůĞƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶƐŵĂLJďĞĂďůĞƚŽĐƌĞĂƚĞƚŚĞŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐŽĨĂƐƚĂƚĞ͕ďƵƚŝƚŵĂLJŶŽƚďĞĂďůĞƚŽĐĂƌƌLJŽƵƚƚŚĞĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐŽĨƚŚŽƐĞŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐ;WƌŝƚĐŚĞƩĂŶĚĚĞtĞŝũĞƌϮϬϭϬͿ͘dŚĞƐĞĐŽŶĚĚŝƐƟŶŐƵŝƐŚŝŶŐĨĞĂƚƵƌĞŝƐƚŚĞƉƌŽĮůĞŽĨŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ͘ĞƐƉŝƚĞĞīŽƌƚƐďLJĚŽŶŽƌƐŽǀĞƌƚŚĞƉĂƐƚϱLJĞĂƌƐƚŽƌĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƚŚĞŝƌĞŶŐĂŐĞŵĞŶƚǁŝƚŚĨƌĂŐŝůĞƐƚĂƚĞƐ͕ŝƚƌĞŵĂŝŶƐůŽǁ͕ĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƚĞĚĂŶĚǀŽůĂƟůĞ͘ ǀĞŶĂƐƚŚĞŽǀĞƌĂůůĂŝĚůĞǀĞůƐƚŽĨƌĂŐŝůĞƐƚĂƚĞƐĂƌĞƌŝƐŝŶŐ͕
Ϯ
ƐƚƵĚŝĞƐĮŶĚŝƚŝƐůŽǁĞƌƚŚĂŶǁŽƵůĚďĞĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚŐŝǀĞŶƚŚĞŝƌŶĞĞĚ;>ĞǀŝŶĂŶĚŽůůĂƌϮϬϬϱͿ͘ŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƟŽŶŽĨŇŽǁƐŝƐĂůƐŽĂƉƌŽďůĞŵ͘dŚŝƐŝŶĐůƵĚĞƐďŽƚŚĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƟŽŶĂŵŽŶŐďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂƌŝĞƐŝŶϮϬϭϬͶŚĂůĨŽĨĂůůĂŝĚƚŽĨƌĂŐŝůĞƐƚĂƚĞƐǁĞŶƚƚŽũƵƐƚƐĞǀĞŶĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ;ƐĞĞ&ŝŐƵƌĞϮͿͶĂŶĚƚĞŵƉŽƌĂůĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƟŽŶ͘ŝƐďƵƌƐĞŵĞŶƚƐĂƌĞŚŝŐŚĞƐƚĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJĂŌĞƌĂĐŽŶŇŝĐƚŽƌŽƚŚĞƌƐŚŽĐŬǁŚŝĐŚŝƐĞdžĂĐƚůLJǁŚĞŶƚŚĞŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚŝƐůĞĂƐƚĂďůĞƚŽĂďƐŽƌďŝƚ;ŽůůŝĞƌϮϬϬϳͿ͘&ŝŶĂůůLJ͕ĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞƚŽĨƌĂŐŝůĞƐƚĂƚĞƐŝƐƚǁŝĐĞĂƐǀŽůĂƟůĞĂƐĂŝĚŇŽǁƐƚŽŽƚŚĞƌůŽǁͲŝŶĐŽŵĞĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ;DĐ'ŝůůŝǀƌĂLJϮϬϬϴͿ͘tŚŝůĞǀŽůĂƟůŝƚLJŚĂƐŶĞŐĂƟǀĞŝŵƉĂĐƚƐŝŶĂůůƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶƐ;ƐĞĞĞ͘Ő͕͘<ŚĂƌĂƐϮϬϬϴͿ͕ŝƚŝƐŵŽƐƚƉƌŽŶŽƵŶĐĞĚĨŽƌĨƌĂŐŝůĞƐƚĂƚĞƐǁŚĞƌĞƉƌŽŐƌĂŵƐĂƌĞŽŌĞŶǁŚŽůůLJĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚŽŶĚŽŶŽƌĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞĂŶĚŵĂLJĐĞĂƐĞƚŽĨƵŶĐƟŽŶŝŶƚŚĞĂďƐĞŶĐĞŽĨĂŝĚ͘ƐƚŚŝƐŝůůƵƐƚƌĂƚĞƐ͕ƚŚĞƐĞĂƌĞƐƚĂƚĞƐǁŚĞƌĞŶŽƌŵĂůƌŝƐŬĂƐƐĞƐƐŵĞŶƚƐǁŽƵůĚŬĞĞƉĚŽŶŽƌƐŽƵƚ͘zĞƚ͕ƚŚĞLJĂƌĞĂůƐŽƚŚĞƐƚĂƚĞƐƚŚĂƚŶĞĞĚŝƚŵŽƐƚ͘KŶĞŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌŽĨŶĞĞĚŝƐƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͘ůƚŚŽƵŐŚĞdžƚƌĞŵĞƉŽǀĞƌƚLJƌĂƚĞƐŚĂǀĞĚĞĐƌĞĂƐĞĚŝŶŶŽŶͲĨƌĂŐŝůĞƐƚĂƚĞƐŽǀĞƌƚŚĞƉĂƐƚϭϱLJĞĂƌƐ͕ƚŚĞLJŚĂǀĞƌĞŵĂŝŶĞĚƵŶĐŚĂŶŐĞĚŝŶĨƌĂŐŝůĞƐƚĂƚĞƐ;/ϮϬϬϳͿ͘ŶŽƚŚĞƌŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌŝƐƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞŝŶƚŚĞDŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ'ŽĂůƐ͘&ŝŐƵƌĞϯŝůůƵƐƚƌĂƚĞƐŚŽǁĨĂƌďĞŚŝŶĚĨƌĂŐŝůĞƐƚĂƚĞƐƌĞŵĂŝŶŝŶŵŽƐƚŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐŝŶƌĞůĂƟŽŶƚŽůŽǁŝŶĐŽŵĞĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͘
2 OECD (2010) shows that in 2009, official development assistanceto fragile states increased by 11% year-on-year. DFID for exampledoubled spending on fragile states over the last five years.
dƌĂŶƐĨĞƌĂďůĞ/ŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ
/ƚŝƐŝŶƚŚŝƐĐŽŶƚĞdžƚƚŚĂƚŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐƐĞĞŬƚŽĚĞůŝǀĞƌƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐƚŽƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƐƚŚĂƚĚĞƐƉĞƌĂƚĞůLJŶĞĞĚƚŚĞŵ͘'ŝǀĞŶƚŚĞǀĂƌŝĞƚLJŽĨĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚĞƐĂŶĚƚĞĐŚŶŝƋƵĞƐƚŚĂƚĞdžŝƐƚŝŶƚŚĞĂďƐĞŶĐĞŽĨĂƐŝŶŐůĞŐůŽďĂůƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ͕ǁĞŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚƐŽŵĞĐŽŵŵŽŶĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐĂŶĚƐƵĐĐĞƐƐĨƵůŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƐŝŶĨŽƵƌƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĐĂůůLJŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƐĞĐƚŽƌƐ͘
,ĞĂůƚŚĐĂƌĞƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ
ĂƌĞŽŶĞŽĨƚŚĞŵŽƐƚǁĞůůͲĨƵŶĚĞĚĂƌĞĂƐŽĨĚŽŶŽƌĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞĂŶĚŽŌĞŶƐĞƌǀĞĂƐĂŶĞĂƌůLJĞŶƚƌLJƉŽŝŶƚ͘ŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐƐƚĞŵĨƌŽŵĞĂƐŝůLJƌĞǀĞƌƐĞĚŐĂŝŶƐ͕ƵŶĐĞƌƚĂŝŶƚLJĂďŽƵƚŚŽǁƚŽƉƌŝŽƌŝƟnjĞƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJƚŽƐĞƉĂƌĂƚĞŚĞĂůƚŚŽƵƚĐŽŵĞƐĨƌŽŵŽƚŚĞƌŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ͘/ŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJ͕ĚŽŶŽƌƐŚĂǀĞƚƵƌŶĞĚƚŽƚŚĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶŽĨĂĂƐŝĐWĂĐŬĂŐĞŽĨ,ĞĂůƚŚ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͕ĂƐĂǁĂLJƚŽƚĂƌŐĞƚƐƉĞŶĚŝŶŐ͘dŽĂĐĐŽƵŶƚĨŽƌǁĞĂŬĚŽŵĞƐƟĐĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJ͕ŵĂŶLJŚĂǀĞĂůƐŽƚƵƌŶĞĚƚŽƉƵďůŝĐʹƉƌŝǀĂƚĞƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐŚŝƉƐŽƌĐŽŶƚƌĂĐƟŶŐŽƵƚŽĨƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͘
tĂƚĞƌĂŶĚ^ĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ
ŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐĂƌĞŽŌĞŶĂŵŽŶŐƚŚĞĮƌƐƚŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐƌĞƋƵĞƐƚĞĚďLJĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƟĞƐ͘zĞƚƚŚĞLJĂƌĞŽŌĞŶƉůĂŐƵĞĚďLJƉƌŽďůĞŵƐŽĨƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ͘/ŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJ͕ĚŽŶŽƌƐŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶƚƵƌŶŝŶŐƚŽƉƌŝǀĂƚĞƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƌƐ͕ďƵƚƚŚŝƐƌĞŵĂŝŶƐĐŽŶƚƌŽǀĞƌƐŝĂů͘
   
aisan
Hai ti
 E t h i o p i a
 D R  C o n g  o
  A  f  g    h  a  n   i  s  t   a  n
  3  7   F  R  A  G  I  L   E  S   T  A   T  E  S
   N   O   N  -   F   R   A   G   I   L    E   S   T   A   T   E   S
38%
OF AID WENT TO FRAGILESTATES IN 2010.HALF OF THAT AID WENT TO JUST 7RECIPIENTS.
Source:OECD (2013).
Figure 2
Concentration of International Assistance to Fragile States (2010)
 
ϯ
Volume 4 Number 1
/ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƐĂŶĚ^ŚŽƌƞĂůůƐŝŶ&ƌĂŐŝůĞ^ƚĂƚĞ/ŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ
;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚĨƌŽŵƉĂŐĞϮͿ
Source:Global Monitoring Report (2010).
Figure 3
Fragile States will not meet the Millennium Development Goals
020406080100MDG 1a-extremepoverty MDG 2-primary completion rateMDG 3-gender parity (primary and secondary)MDG 4-childmortality under fiveMDG 7c-accessto safe water MDG 7c-accessto sanitation
   P  r  o   g  r  e  s  s   t  o  w  a  r   d   g  o  a   l   t  o   d  a   t  e ,   %
Middle-income countriesLow-income countriesFragile states
DŽƐƚŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƐĂƌĞƟĞĚƚŽƚŚĞǁĂLJƚŚĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJŝƐĞŶŐĂŐĞĚŝŶƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͘ĞŵĂŶĚZĞƐƉŽŶƐŝǀĞƉƉƌŽĂĐŚĞƐĂƌĞĂŵŽŶŐƚŚĞŵŽƐƚĐŽŵŵŽŶĚĞůŝǀĞƌLJŵĞƚŚŽĚƐƚŽĚĂLJĂƐƚŚĞĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐŽĨƐƵƉƉůLJͲĚƌŝǀĞŶƐLJƐƚĞŵƐĂƌĞĂĐŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞĚ͘ŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJͲůĞĚdŽƚĂů^ĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶŝƐĂĐŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝǀĞƉƌŽŐƌĂŵƚŚĂƚƉƌŽŵŽƚĞƐďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌĂůĐŚĂŶŐĞĂƐƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ͘dŚĞƌĞŚĂƐĂůƐŽďĞĞŶƐŽŵĞƐƵĐĐĞƐƐǁŝƚŚƉƌŝǀĂƚĞƐĞĐƚŽƌƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƌƐ͕ĂůƚŚŽƵŐŚƚŚŝƐƌĞŵĂŝŶƐĐŽŶƚƌŽǀĞƌƐŝĂů͘
ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ
ŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐĂƌĞĂŵŽŶŐƚŚĞŵŽƐƚƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟǀĞ͘zĞƚǁŚŝůĞĨƌĂŐŝůĞƐƚĂƚĞƐĂƌĞƚŚĞƐŽƵƌĐĞŽĨŚĂůĨŽĨƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚ͛ƐŽƵƚͲŽĨͲƐĐŚŽŽůƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ƚŚĞLJƌĞĐĞŝǀĞŽŶůLJŽŶĞͲĮŌŚŽĨĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂŝĚ;ŽůĂŶĂŶĚWĞƌƌLJϮϬϬϳͿ͘dŚĞƉƌŽďůĞŵŝƐƚŚĂƚĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐĂƌĞĞĂƐŝůLJƉŽůŝƟĐŝnjĞĚĂŶĚĐĂŶƚŚĞŵƐĞůǀĞƐďĞĐŽŵĞĂƐŽƵƌĐĞŽĨĚŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƟŽŶ͘/ŶĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ƚŚĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐŽĨĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĚĞůŝǀĞƌLJŶĞĞĚƚŽďĞƐƵƉƉůĞŵĞŶƚĞĚďLJĂĨŽĐƵƐŽŶƚŚĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJŽĨƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͘ĞůŝǀĞƌLJƐLJƐƚĞŵŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƐŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶŵĂĚĞǁŚĞƌĞƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƐĂƌĞŶŽŵĂĚŝĐŽƌǁŚĞƌĞƚŚĞŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚŝƐƵŶĂďůĞƚŽƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͘dŚĞƐĞŝŶĐůƵĚĞĞŶŐĂŐŝŶŐE'KƐĂƐƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƌƐ͕ƐŚĂĚŽǁĂůŝŐŶŵĞŶƚƉƌŽĐĞĚƵƌĞƐ͕ĂŶĚĐŽŵƉƌĞƐƐĞĚůĞĂƌŶŝŶŐĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚĞƐ͘^ĞƌǀŝĐĞƉƌŽǀŝƐŝŽŶŝŶƚŚĞĂƌĞĂŽĨ
^ĞĐƵƌŝƚLJĂŶĚ:ƵƐƟĐĞ
ŵĂLJďĞĐŽŵƉůŝĐĂƚĞĚďLJƚŚĞŶĞĞĚĨŽƌƐŝŵƵůƚĂŶĞŽƵƐƐƚĂƚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐĞdžĞƌĐŝƐĞƐ͘dŚĞƐĞƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐĂƌĞĂĐŽŶƐƟƚƵƟǀĞĞůĞŵĞŶƚŽĨĂĨƵŶĐƟŽŶŝŶŐƐƚĂƚĞĂŶĚƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĐůŽƐĞĐŽůůĂďŽƌĂƟŽŶ͘zĞƚŝŶƐƚĂƚĞƐǁŚĞƌĞƚŚĞŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚĚŽĞƐŶŽƚĨƵŶĐƟŽŶǁĞůů͕ƚŚŝƐƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐĮŶĚŝŶŐůĞŐŝƟŵĂƚĞĞŶƚƌLJƉŽŝŶƚƐ͘/ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƐŝŶƚŚŝƐƐĞĐƚŽƌŝŶǀŽůǀĞĐŽĂůŝƟŽŶďƵŝůĚŝŶŐĂĐƌŽƐƐĂĐƚŽƌƐĂŶĚƐĞĐƚŽƌƐ͘/ŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJ͕ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚĞƐĂƌĞďĞŝŶŐĨĂǀŽƌĞĚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŝĚĞĂƚŚĂƚŶĞŝŐŚďŽƌƐŵĂLJďĞƉĞƌĐĞŝǀĞĚĂƐŵŽƌĞůĞŐŝƟŵĂƚĞ͘ŶŽƚŚĞƌŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶŝŶǀŽůǀĞƐƚŚĞƵƐĞŽĨĐƵƐƚŽŵĂƌLJƐLJƐƚĞŵƐŽĨũƵƐƟĐĞǁŚĞƌĞƚŚĞLJĂƌĞĨƵŶĐƟŽŶŝŶŐƌĂƚŚĞƌƚŚĂŶĐƌĞĂƟŶŐĂŶĞŶƟƌĞůLJŶĞǁƐLJƐƚĞŵ͘
ŽŵŵŽŶĞƐŝŐŶ^ŚŽƌƞĂůůƐ
ǀĞŶĂƐƚŚĞƐĞŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƐŚĂǀĞĐŽŵĞƚŽĚĞĮŶĞƚŚĞĨƌŽŶƟĞƌƐŽĨŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐŝŶĨƌĂŐŝůĞƐƚĂƚĞƐ͕ƚŚĞƌĞƌĞŵĂŝŶƐůŝŵŝƚĞĚĞǀŝĚĞŶĐĞƚŚĂƚƚŚĞLJƌĞƐƵůƚŝŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŐĂŝŶƐĨŽƌďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂƌLJĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͘KƵƌƐƵƌǀĞLJŽĨĚŽŶŽƌĞǀĂůƵĂƟŽŶƐŽĨĨƌĂŐŝůĞƐƚĂƚĞƐƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐƐƵŐŐĞƐƚƐƚŚĂƚƚŚŝƐŝƐƉĂƌƚůLJĚƵĞƚŽĂůĂĐŬŽĨůĞĂƌŶŝŶŐĂŵŽŶŐĚŽŶŽƌƐ͘dŚĞƌĞĂƌĞĨŽƵƌĚĞƐŝŐŶĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐƚŚĂƚĂƌĞŵĞŶƟŽŶĞĚŝŶŶĞĂƌůLJĞǀĞƌLJĞǀĂůƵĂƟŽŶƌĞƉŽƌƚ͕ǁŚŝĐŚ͕ŝĨĂĚĚƌĞƐƐĞĚ͕ĐŽƵůĚƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚĞŶƚŚĞƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉďĞƚǁĞĞŶĚŽŶŽƌĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞĂŶĚƉŽƐŝƟǀĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽƵƚĐŽŵĞƐ͘dŚĞŵŽƐƚĐŽŵŵŽŶĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞŵĞŶƟŽŶĞĚŝƐ
ƚŚĞŶĞĞĚƚŽŝŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƚĞƚŚĞůŽĐĂůĐŽŶƚĞdžƚ
ŝŶƚŽƉƌŽũĞĐƚĚĞƐŝŐŶ͘dŚĞƌĞĂƌĞƚǁŽĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶƐƚŽƚŚŝƐƉƌŽďůĞŵͶŚŽǁƚŽŐĂŝŶŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶĂďŽƵƚƚŚĞůŽĐĂůĐŽŶƚĞdžƚĂŶĚŚŽǁƚŽƵƐĞŝƚŽŶĐĞŝƚŝƐĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͘
;ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚŽŶŶĞdžƚƉĂŐĞͿ

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->