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Physics Final Revision - Forces and Pressure 2013.pdf

Physics Final Revision - Forces and Pressure 2013.pdf

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Published by Cikgu Faizal
Sumber : http://physicsrox.com/2013/10/23/physics-spm-notes/

Nota ringkas Fizik yang sesuai digunakan di saat2 akhir persediaan SPM 2013.

Berupaya menjadi sumber rujukan semasa calon membuat latihan Trial SPM Negeri 2013 @ Past Year SPM Question @ Module Perfect Score Physics SBP 2013

Mudah2an nota ini akan banyak membantu calon SPM 2013
Sumber : http://physicsrox.com/2013/10/23/physics-spm-notes/

Nota ringkas Fizik yang sesuai digunakan di saat2 akhir persediaan SPM 2013.

Berupaya menjadi sumber rujukan semasa calon membuat latihan Trial SPM Negeri 2013 @ Past Year SPM Question @ Module Perfect Score Physics SBP 2013

Mudah2an nota ini akan banyak membantu calon SPM 2013

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Cikgu Faizal on Oct 24, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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03/22/2014

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╞╡§¥
Physics SPM 2013
Chapter 3: Forces and Pressure
 
 Hoo Sze Yen
 
www.physicsrox.com
 
Page 1 of 8
 
CHAPTER 3: FORCES AND PRESSURE
3.1
 
Pressure
Pressure
is the forcewhich acts normal per unit area of contact.
 
 A F  P 
 where
 P 
= pressure [Pa]
 F 
= force [N]
 A
= area [m
2
]
3.2
 
Pressure in Liquids
Pressure in liquids
are not dependent on the size or shape of the container; only on its depth.
 
 g h P 
 
 where
 P 
= pressure [Pa]
h
= height of liquid [m]
 ρ
= density of liquid [kg m
-3
]
 g 
= gravitational acceleration [m s
-2
]
3.3
 
Atmospheric and Gas Pressure
3.3.1
 
Atmospheric Pressure
 
Atmospheric pressure is measured by barometers.
 Mercury barometer Aneroid barometer 
Atmospheric pressure measured by a simple mercury barometer can be calculated using theformula
 P=hρg 
.
Units of pressureUnit Note
Pa
SI unit 
 N m
-2
 Equivalent to Pa
 N cm
-2
cm Hgm water atm
1 atm = atmospheric pressure at sea level 
 bar 
1 bar = 1 atm
 For atmospheric pressureonly
 
╞╡§¥
Physics SPM 2013
Chapter 3: Forces and Pressure
 
 Hoo Sze Yen
 
www.physicsrox.com
 
Page 2 of 8
 Standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is usually
76 cm Hg
or 
10 m water
. It can also beexpressed as
1 bar
.
 Note:
cm H
is an accepted unit of atmospheric pressure. Other similar units involving different liquids are also accepted.
 
For example:Given that
h
= 76 cm and the density of mercury is13 600 kg m
-3
:Answer:Atmospheric pressure = 76 cm Hg
 
State the answer in Pascal:
 P = hρg =
0.76(13 600)(10) =
103 360 Pa
 
3.3.2
 
Gas Pressure
 
Gas pressure
can be measured using
manometers
and
Bourdon gauges
.
 Manometer Bourdon gauge
In manometers, pressure can be calculated based on pressure equilibrium.For example:Pressure at point
 A
= Pressure at point
Gas pressure = Atmospheric pressure +
hρg 
 
 
╞╡§¥
Physics SPM 2013
Chapter 3: Forces and Pressure
 
 Hoo Sze Yen
 
www.physicsrox.com
 
Page 3 of 8
 
3.4
 
Pascal’s Principle
 
Pascal’s Principle
dictates that pressure which is exerted onto the surface of a fluid in aclosed container will be transferred uniformly throughout the entire fluid.
 
2211
 A F  A F 
 All
hydraulic systems are built based on Pascal’s Principle.
 
3.4.1
 
Hydraulic jack 
 
When the lever is pushed downwards, valve
 A
closes while valve
 B
opens.
 
Pressure is transferred to the larger cylinder and creates a large force to lift the car.
 
When the lever is pulled upwards, valve
 B
closes while valve
 A
opens. The hydraulic oilflows out from the tank to fill the space in the small cylinder.
 
As every movement downwards by the lever creates a small movement upwards for thelarge piston, the lever needs to be pushed and pulled repeatedly before the car can beraised to a certain height required.
 
The car can be lowered down by opening the release valve so that the hydraulic oil canflow back into the tank.
2
 
1
 
 F 
2
 
 F 
1
 

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