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Physics Final Revision - Forces and Pressure 2013.pdf

# Physics Final Revision - Forces and Pressure 2013.pdf

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Sumber : http://physicsrox.com/2013/10/23/physics-spm-notes/

Nota ringkas Fizik yang sesuai digunakan di saat2 akhir persediaan SPM 2013.

Berupaya menjadi sumber rujukan semasa calon membuat latihan Trial SPM Negeri 2013 @ Past Year SPM Question @ Module Perfect Score Physics SBP 2013

Mudah2an nota ini akan banyak membantu calon SPM 2013
Sumber : http://physicsrox.com/2013/10/23/physics-spm-notes/

Nota ringkas Fizik yang sesuai digunakan di saat2 akhir persediaan SPM 2013.

Berupaya menjadi sumber rujukan semasa calon membuat latihan Trial SPM Negeri 2013 @ Past Year SPM Question @ Module Perfect Score Physics SBP 2013

Mudah2an nota ini akan banyak membantu calon SPM 2013

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03/22/2014

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╞╡§¥
Physics SPM 2013
Chapter 3: Forces and Pressure

Hoo Sze Yen

www.physicsrox.com

Page 1 of 8

CHAPTER 3: FORCES AND PRESSURE
3.1

Pressure
Pressure
is the forcewhich acts normal per unit area of contact.

A F  P
where
P
= pressure [Pa]
F
= force [N]
A
= area [m
2
]
3.2

Pressure in Liquids
Pressure in liquids
are not dependent on the size or shape of the container; only on its depth.

g h P

where
P
= pressure [Pa]
h
= height of liquid [m]
ρ
= density of liquid [kg m
-3
]
g
= gravitational acceleration [m s
-2
]
3.3

Atmospheric and Gas Pressure
3.3.1

Atmospheric Pressure

Atmospheric pressure is measured by barometers.
Mercury barometer Aneroid barometer
Atmospheric pressure measured by a simple mercury barometer can be calculated using theformula
P=hρg
.
Units of pressureUnit Note
Pa
SI unit
N m
-2
Equivalent to Pa
N cm
-2
cm Hgm water atm
1 atm = atmospheric pressure at sea level
bar
1 bar = 1 atm
For atmospheric pressureonly

╞╡§¥
Physics SPM 2013
Chapter 3: Forces and Pressure

Hoo Sze Yen

www.physicsrox.com

Page 2 of 8
Standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is usually
76 cm Hg
or
10 m water
. It can also beexpressed as
1 bar
.
Note:
cm H
is an accepted unit of atmospheric pressure. Other similar units involving different liquids are also accepted.

For example:Given that
h
= 76 cm and the density of mercury is13 600 kg m
-3
:Answer:Atmospheric pressure = 76 cm Hg

P = hρg =
0.76(13 600)(10) =
103 360 Pa

3.3.2

Gas Pressure

Gas pressure
can be measured using
manometers
and
Bourdon gauges
.
Manometer Bourdon gauge
In manometers, pressure can be calculated based on pressure equilibrium.For example:Pressure at point
A
= Pressure at point
Gas pressure = Atmospheric pressure +
hρg

╞╡§¥
Physics SPM 2013
Chapter 3: Forces and Pressure

Hoo Sze Yen

www.physicsrox.com

Page 3 of 8

3.4

Pascal’s Principle

Pascal’s Principle
dictates that pressure which is exerted onto the surface of a fluid in aclosed container will be transferred uniformly throughout the entire fluid.

2211
A F  A F
All
hydraulic systems are built based on Pascal’s Principle.

3.4.1

Hydraulic jack

When the lever is pushed downwards, valve
A
closes while valve
B
opens.

Pressure is transferred to the larger cylinder and creates a large force to lift the car.

When the lever is pulled upwards, valve
B
closes while valve
A
opens. The hydraulic oilflows out from the tank to fill the space in the small cylinder.

As every movement downwards by the lever creates a small movement upwards for thelarge piston, the lever needs to be pushed and pulled repeatedly before the car can beraised to a certain height required.

The car can be lowered down by opening the release valve so that the hydraulic oil canflow back into the tank.
2

1

F
2

F
1