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16_Tomulet_Bivol.pdf

16_Tomulet_Bivol.pdf

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Full text available on http://tyragetia.nationalmuseum.md Articolul este disponibil integral pe http://tyragetia.nationalmuseum.md
Full text available on http://tyragetia.nationalmuseum.md Articolul este disponibil integral pe http://tyragetia.nationalmuseum.md

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Published by: Muzeul Naţional de Istorie a Moldovei on Oct 24, 2013
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10/26/2014

 
=64
Ryrmdftgm
, s.n., vca. YGG UXXGG_, nr. <, <0=;, =64-=99.
\FP\FZFNRMN
Ŭ
G MG FAGRFG LV\DHFZF BGN LM[M\MLGM:NFDV[RC\VA D\FK PMNRFAFG [GNMBGNC(mngg ‗;0-‗60 mg sfk. ma XGX-afm)
 Mlcrbmrfm fagtmr
ċ
m sckgft
ċū
gg fstf unm rfamtgv ncu
ċ
, mtìt în gstcrgcdrm
m furcpfmn
ċ
, kìt
œ
g în kfmrcoìnfmsk
ċ
. În gstcrgcdrm
m rcoìnfmsk
ċ
tfomtg-km bmt
ċ
m icst bfjm mlcrbmt
ċ
, mtìt în pamn tfcrftgk,gstcrgcdrm
k, kìt
œ
g în kfa tfomtgk. Mstifa,
\fvgstmbf
œ
tggn
ū 
f pcagtgkf PCAG[ 
, pulagk
ċ
în =776 un nu-o
ċ
r spfkgma kcnsmkrmt fagtfacr, gntgtuamt
 Mktum-agtmtfm fagtfacr
, kmrf kcn
ū
gnf kcntrglu
ū
gg gnfbgtf,gnbgdfnf, prfkuo
œ
g trmbukfrg maf uncr tfxtf bf lmz
ċ
pfntru crgkf bgsku
ū
gf în bcofngua fagtfacr (Y.Lurtcn, \. Dunthfr, J. Hgdafy, I. Rhco, \. Fyfr-omn, D. Ecamnegfwgkz) (Pcags =776, pmssgo). Vnmn omg tìrzgu (=779), Iunbm
ū
gm Mkmbfogk
ċ
„M.B.Xfncpca‟ bgn Gm
œ
g bfbgk
ċ
 
œ
g fm un vcauo spfkgmafagtfacr. Bgntrf kfrkft
ċ
tcrgg kmrf s-mu kcnsmkrmtmkfstfg tfomtgkg pct
ncognmagzm
ū
g: MafxmnbruZul, [tfagmn R
ċ
nmsf, Pftru Lfjmn, Mafxmnbru-Iac-rgn Pamtcn, K
ċ
t
ċ
agn Ruraguk, Dhfcrdhf Rfcbcrfs-ku, Iacrfm Gcnkgcmgm, \fous Kìopfmnu, [gogcn\ftfdmn,
Ş
tfimn-Oghmg Kfmu
œ
u, Aukgmn N
ċ
stms
ċ
, Mnbg Oghmamkhf, K
ċ
t
ċ
agnm Gcjm ftk. (Xfncpcagmnm=774, pmssgo). În gstcrgcdrm
m ocabcvfnfmsk
ċ
 tfomtgkm bmt
ċ
mlgm î
œ
g m
œ
tfmpt
ċ
kfrkft
ċ
tcrua. Bgnmkfst kcnsgbfrfnt, prclafom fagtfacr lurdhfzf bgnLmsmrmlgm în fpckm ocbfrn
ċ
fstf unm mktuma
ċ
 
œ
gnfkfsmr
ċ
km tfomtgk
ċ
bf kfrkftmrf. Fm mskunbfomg ouatf prclafof, mtìt km tfo
ċ
bf kfrkftmrf,kìt
œ
g km prmktgk
ċ
 
œ
tggn
ū
g
k
ċ
, înbfcsflg gstcrgcdrm
-k
ċ
, prfkuo putfrfm, gfrmrhgm smu bgifrgtfaf icrofbf gnstgtu
ū
gg sckgmaf, sursfaf vfngtuaug
œ
g ngvfaua bfmvfrf, prcifsgunfm smu ofsfrgm prmktgkmt
ċ
, kcnbg-
ū
ggaf bf vgm
ūċ
, prfstgdgua sckgma ftk.
œ
g, în kfaf bgnuro
ċ
, km c prclafo
ċ
bf crbgn acdgk. Bup
ċ
kuokcnstmt
ċ
kuncskutua kfrkft
ċ
tcr gf
œ
fmn Mafxmnbru-Iacrgn Pamtcn, nc
ū
gunfm bf lurdhfzgf „…m mjuns s
ċ
 imk
ċ
pmrtf bgn vckmluamrua ncstru uzuma, tckomg
-gnbk
ċ
bfsfonfmz
ċ
, ku un mat nuof, însu
œ
g
ū
fsutua vgtma ma gstcrgfg fpckgg ocbfrnf‟ (Pamtcn =774, =).În stubgua bf im
ūċ
vco punf în bgsku
ū
gf prclafomfagtfg lurdhfzf bgn Lmsmrmlgm în sfk. ma XGX-afm,mvìnbu-a km rfprfzfntmnt pf kuncskutua nfdustcrdrfk Pmntfafg (Pmntfafgocn) [gnmbgnc, mtfstmt îngzvcmrfaf bf mrhgv 
ċ
km supus turk, kmrf, bgn =8<7,bgspunfm bf lunurg goclgagmrf în Khg
œ
gn
ċ
u, gmr în-kfpìnb ku mnua =8;< ‛ km nfdustcr str
ċ
gn, înskrgs în dhgabfaf kcofrkgmaf bgn Khg
œ
gn
ċ
u
=
.Pfntru c mlcrbmrf tfofgngk
ċ
m prclafofg ncog-nmagzmtf, am înkfput fstf nfkfsmr s
ċ
imkfo c km-rmktfrgstgk
ċ
sukkgnt
ċ
m prclafofg prgvgnb fagtfaffurcpfnf, în dfnfrma,
œ
g m fagtfacr bgn Prgnkgpmtfaf\coìnf, în pmrtgkuamr, km tfo
ċ
bf kfrkftmrf
œ
tggn-
ū
g
k
ċ
în sckgcacdgm
œ
g pcagtcacdgm kcntfopcrmn
ċ
<
.Bgnkcac bf kcntrcvfrsfaf tfcrftgkf pf kmrf af df-nfrfmz
ċ
, fagtfaf kcnstgtugf c rfmagtmtf sckgma
ċ
kco-pafx
ċ
, mbfsfcrg goprfvgzglga
ċ
, impt kf bftfrogn
ċ
 c pfromnfnt
ċ
k
ċ
utmrf bf ncg ocbfaf fxpagkmtgvf.Putfo kcnkhgbf k
ċ
m stubgm gstcrgm fagtfacr rfprf-zgnt
ċ
, în icnb, stubgfrfm gstcrgfg pur
œ
g sgopau, bf-cmrfkf fagtfaf nu pct
trmtmtf km vmacrg gzcamtf, kgbcmr într-un afdgtgo kcntfxt sckgma. Fstf bfstua bfdrfu m pamsm ng
œ
tf agogtf
xf kìnb nf rfifrgo ambfagogtmrfm fagtfacr km drupurg sckgmaf, bfcmrfkfmkfstfm bf ouatf crg sf întrfp
ċ
trunb
œ
g sf gn
ufn-
ū
fmz
ċ
rfkgprck. Mkfstf agogtf sunt omg mkkfntumtfsmu omg pu
ū
gn fvgbfntf mnuof în iunk
ū
gf bf kcn-tfxtua sckgma în kmbrua k
ċ
rugm fagtfaf sf kcnstgtugf
œ
g sf bfzvcat
ċ
uatfrgcr km ng
œ
tf kmtfdcrgg sckgmafbgstgnktf
œ
g kmrf, în mnuogtf îoprfjur
ċ
rg gstcrgkfkcnkrftf, sf vcr gopunf prgn gbfgaf
œ
g vcgn
ū
m acr înkmbrua omsfacr. Pmrtgbfaf pcagtgkf, drup
ċ
rgaf prc-ifsgcnmaf, msckgm
ū
ggaf kuaturmaf în nuofaf k
ċ
rcrmfagtfaf sf fxfrsfmz
ċ
km mutcrgt
ċū
g kcopftfntf suntogjacmkf bf afdgtgomrf m
nmagt
ċū
gacr vgzmtf în bc-ofngua fkcncogk, pcagtgk, sckgma, kuaturma ftk.Bf
ngrfm kcnkfptuaug bf fagt
ċ
krffmz
ċ
c sfrgf bfmolgdugt
ċū
g, bfcmrfkf fagtfaf sunt mnmagzmtf bup
ċ
 
=
 MN\O, I. 46, gnv. =, b. 662, i. ;6 vfrsc
<
Bfsprf nc
ū
gunfm bf fagt
ċ
 
œ
g bgsku
ū
ggaf purtmtf pf pmrkursua mng-acr, mxmtf pf mkfmst
ċ
prclafo
ċ
,
œ
g bfsprf fagtfaf lurdhfzf bgnLmsmrmlgm
m sf vfbfm
omg bftmagmt: Rcouaf
ū
, Lgvca <0=<, <=;-<;2. Mkfst stubgu pcmtf
d
ċ
sgt
œ
g în: Rcouaf
ū
<0=<, <70-;=4.
 Ymafntgn Rcouaf
ū
 Ygktcrgm Lgvca
 
Iuaa tfxt mvmgamlaf cn
Rfxtua gntfdrma ma mrtgkcauaugpcmtf ig dċsgt pf
Iuaa tfxt mvmgamlaf cn
Rfxtua gntfdrma ma mrtgkcauaug pcmtfig dċsgt pf
 
 Y. Rcouaf
ū
, Y. Lgvca,
 \fprfzfntmn
ū 
g mg fagtfg lurdhfzf bgn Lmsmrmlgm: nfdustcrua drfk Pmntfafg [gnmbgnc
=96
Lglagcdrm
f
Kìopfmnu =779:
\. Kìopfmnu, Fagtf rcoìnf
œ
tg
œ
g fagtf furcpfnf în vfmkua XYGGG. Înkfrk
ċ
rg bf bf
ngrf. Gn: Xfnc-pcagmnm. Luaftgnua Iunbm
ū
gfg Mkmbfogkf „M.B. Xfncpca‟ bgn Gm
œ
g, GY, =-2 (Gm
œ
g =779), 84-72.
Igagttg =7;9:
G.K. Igagttg, \ 
ċ
t
ċ
kgrgaf unfg psfubc-lurdhfzgg
œ
g rficrof kf nu sf imk (Lukurf
œ
tg =7;9).
Gnstgtu
ū
gg =788:
Gnstgtu
ū
gg ifubmaf bgn
Ŭċ
rgaf \coìnf. Bgk
ū
gcnmr / Kccrb.: C. [mkhfamrgf, N. [tcgkfsku (Lukurf
œ
tg=788).
A
ċ
z
ċ
rfsku =777:
B.M. A
ċ
z
ċ
rfsku, Gomdgnfm \coìngfg prgn k
ċ
a
ċ
tcrg, vca. GG, =487-=8<= (Lukurf
œ
tg =789).
Ofusfa =780:
M. Ofusfa, Rhf Ogbbaf Kamss gn Fnkykacpfbgm ci thf [ckgma [kgfnkfs, vca. GX (Nfw Wcre =794).
Oghmga, Oghmga =77;:
P. Oghmga, Z. Oghmga, Mktf în agolm rcoìn
ċ
tgp
ċ
rgtf în Lmsmrmlgm. G. =8=<-=8; (Lukurf
œ
tg=77;).
Pamtcn =774:
Ma.-Ia. Pamtcn, Dfnfzm lurdhfzgfg în Prgnkgpmtfaf \coìnf (m bcum juo
ċ
tmtf m sfkcauaug ma XYGGG-afm -prgom juo
ċ
tmtf m sfkcauaug ma XGX-afm). Prfagognmrggaf unfg gstcrgg (Gm
œ
g =774).
Pcags =776:
Pcags. \fvgst
ċ
bf
œ
tggn
ū
f pcagtgkf, vca. 2 (Lukurf
œ
tg =776).
Rcouaf
ū
=777:
Y. Rcouaf
ū
, Vnfaf kcnsgbfrm
ū
gg bf mnsmolau prgvgnb tgpcacdgm lurdhfzgfg lmsmrmlfnf în pfrgcmbmocbfrn
ċ
. Gn: [yopcsgm prcifsscruo. [frgm Gstcrgf (Khg
œ
gn
ċ
u =777), ;7-20.
Rcouaf
ū
<00<:
Y. Rcouaf
ū
, Pcagtgkm kcofrkgma-vmoma
ċ
m
ū
mrgsouaug în Lmsmrmlgm
œ
g gn
ufn
ū
m fg msuprm kcnstgtugrgg lurdhfzgfg kcofrkgmaf (=8=<-=898) (Khg
œ
gn
ċ
u <00<).
Rcouaf
ū
<004m:
Y. Rcouaf
ū
, Krcngkm prctfstfacr
œ
g rfvfnbgk
ċ
rgacr pcpuam
ū
gfg bgn Lmsmrmlgm (=8=<-=8<8), vca. G(Khg
œ
gn
ċ
u <004).
Rcouaf
ū
<004l:
Y. Rcouaf
ū
, Krcngkm prctfstfacr
œ
g rfvfnbgk
ċ
rgacr pcpuam
ū
gfg bgn Lmsmrmlgm (=8=<-=8<8), vca. GG(Khg
œ
gn
ċ
u <004).
Rcouaf
ū
<008:
Y. Rcouaf
ū
,
 
 Mpagkmrfm în Lmsmrmlgm m strukturgg bf dhgab
ċ
bgn =2 ncgfolrgf =8<2. Gn: Ircntgfrfafspm
ū
guaug rcoìnfsk în kcntfxt furcpfmn (Crmbfm-Khg
œ
gn
ċ
u <008), <;8-<69.
Rcouaf
ū
<0=<:
Y. Rcouaf
ū
, Lmsmrmlgm în sgstfoua fkcncogk
œ
g pcagtgk ma Gopfrguaug \us (=8=<-=898). [tubgg (Khg-
œ
gn
ċ
u <0=<).
Rcouaf
ū
, Lgvca <0=<:
Y. Rcouaf
ū
, Y. Lgvca, Fagtf maf lurdhfzgfg lmsmrmlfnf: nfdustcrgg mndrcsg
œ
tg mrofng
œ
g drfkg(=8=<-=898). Ryrmdftgm s.n. <, vca. YG (XXG), <0=<, <=;-<;2.
Ruraguk =779:
K. Ruraguk, Fagtm fkcncogk
ċ
în \coìngm am siìr
œ
gtua sfkcauaug XGX
œ
g înkfputua sfkcauaug XX. \c-aua gnbustrgm
œ
gacr fvrfg. Gn: Xfncpcagmnm. Luaftgnua Iunbm
ū
gfg Mkmbfogkf „M.B. Xfncpca‟ bgn Gm
œ
g, GY, =-2 (Gm
œ
g=779), =<=-=;0.
 Tfaafrstfgn =780:
G. Tfaafrstfgn, Rhf kmpgtmagst wcrab ‛ Fkcncoy (Kmolrgbdf Vngvfrsgty Prfss =780).
Xfncpcagmnm =779:
Xfncpcagmnm. Luaftgnua Iunbm
ū
gfg Mkmbfogkf „M.B. Xfncpca‟ bgn Gm
œ
g, GY, =-2 (Gm
œ
g =779).
Гоеойжпиж
=79<:
 
Гоеойжпиж
 
кржэьсуп
 
и
 
кржэьсупэкож
 
вмийжпиж
 
м
 
Нжээарании
(=8=<-=89=
ловх
).
Энорпик
 
вокыбжпьом
/
Эоэьамиьжеи
 
И
.
 А 
.
 Апщыгом
,
К 
.
Г
.
Крхйапомэкау
,
ьоб
GGG,
фаэьс
G (
Кишипжм
=79<).
\fprfsfntmtgvfs ci lcurdfcgs fagtf gn Lfssmrmlgm:Drffe ofrkhmnt Pmntfafg [gnmbgnc (=8;0-=860)
 Mlstrmkt 
Gn thgs mrtgkaf, thf muthcrs put gn bgskussgcn thf gssuf ci Lfssmrmlgmn lcurdfcgs fagtf, hmvgnd ms gts rfprfsfntmtgvfthf Drffe ofrkhmnt Pmntfafg [gnmbgnc prfsfntfb gn mrkhgvma scurkfs ms m Ruregsh kgtgzfn, whc sgnkf =8<7 cwnfbgn Khg
œ
gn
ċ
u m rfma fstmtf vmaufb mt 60 thcusmnb rulafs mnb wms fnagstfb gn thf kamss ci 
rst dugab ofrkhmnts gn Khg-sgnmu.Kcoofrkgma kmpgtma cwnfb ly P. [gnmbgnc rfmkhfb gn =8;0s mlcut < ogaagcn rulafs mnb wms icrofb nct cnay thrcudhtrmbf mnb usury. Hf masc cwnfb vmrgcus kcoofrkgma mnb gnbustrgma fntfrprgsfs. Gn =8;9 P. [gnmbgnc cwnfb m wcca wmshhcusf gn thf Ygstfrngkfng (cr \ì
œ
kmng) fstmtf ackmtfb nct imr irco Khg
œ
gn
ċ
u, whgkh wmshfb ;0,000 pccbs ci  wcca pfr yfmr. Gt wms lrgndgnd mn gnkcof ci 4,000 rulafs.Bfspgtf thf imkt thmt P. [gnmbgnc hmb m drfmt kcoofrkgma kmpgtma, gn =820, icaacwgnd thf mlcagtgcn ci trmbf prgvgafdfsdrmntfb ly Dugab \fduamtgcn ci [fptfolfr <9, =8;0, hf ocvfb tc thf kamss ci sfkcnb dugab ofrkhmnts. Gn thgs kmt-fdcry, wgth m ifw gntfrruptgcns, hf rfomgnfb gn thf icaacwgnd yfmrs. Rhgs prcvfs cnkf mdmgn thmt thf kcoofrkgma lcurdfcgsgf scudht bgiifrfnt wmys tc fnjcy maa thf prgvgafdfs drmntfb ly thf tsmrgst dcvfrnofnt, trygnd tc fvmbfbutgfs. [c, m ofrkhmnt kcuab dc tc m acwfr dugab, mnb thfn, mitfr prcvgbgnd nfw lfnf
ts, dft lmke gn thf
rst dugab.P. [gnmbgnc gnkrfmsfb hgs kmpgtma thrcudh thf fxpacgtmtgcn ci somaa prcbukfrs, hmvgnd rfntfb gn =820 m nuolfr ci ackmagtgfs wgth hudf mrfms ci amnb ‛
Ş
frpfng, Pud
ċ
kfng, Bulmsmrgg Yfkhg, Kcrjcvm, Lgamkhfvm, ftk. Mkkcrbgnd tc bc-

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