Early State in the Classical World
Shtaerman 1989: 81–85). Second, the notion of the statewas firmly associated with bureaucracy and other features characteristicof Oriental
. Meanwhile, in Rome and Athensthe government officials bear little resemblance to bureaucrats (see
.,Osborne 1985: 9). Third, some difficulties were encountered when deal-ing with other features considered obligatory attributes of a state, suchas for instance, a compulsory taxation. After all, the citizens of the Ro-man Republic, Athens and some other poleis paid no regular taxes butonly special ones (I will return to this point later). These and some other specific
features of ancient communities provided grounds for raising anumber of complicated questions including such as whether a
wasa state (
., Utchenko 1965: 18; see also Gluskina 1983b: 31; Frolov1986: 18; Koshelenko 1983: 31) and whether it was a city at the sametime? (Koshelenko 1979: 5–6; 1983: 31; Marinovich and Koshelenko 1995;also see about it: van der Vliet 1987: 71.)
ON THE TYPOLOGY OF THE EARLY STATES
In the framework of the present article the
will be defined
a specific form of political organization of asufficiently large and complex craft-agrarian society (or a group of such societies/territories) that controls its external policy and,partly, social order; at the same time this political form is a powerorganization separated from the population and which a) possessessovereignty (or, at least, autonomy); b) is capable of forcing the pop-ulation to fulfill its demands, change important relationships and in-troduce new ones, and redistribute resources; and с) is not built (ba-sically, or mainly) on kinship principles.
As I showed in a number of works, complex and diverse in their forms and institutes non-state societies comparable with state in manyrespects existed simultaneously with the early states. Such politieswhich were comparable with early states in their complexity and func-tions, but which differed from the state in some characteristics of their political and administrative organization I called
early state analogues
(see Grinin 2003, 2004c, 2006b, 2007b, 2007a).
Thus, the process of politogenesis should not be reduced only to the state formation (for de-tails concerning the term
, see Bondarenko and Korotayev2000b; Bondarenko, Grinin and Korotayev 2002; Grinin 2003: 164; for the distinction between both terms, see Grinin 2001–2006). Still the earlystates themselves cannot be reduced only to a single type, namely, the