STUDY OF UNIX OS
A computer uses a set of programs, generally called the operating system, to manage itshardware resources (memory, disks, displays, input devices, etc.) on behalf of the user. UNIX is anexample of such a system. It was originally developed as a research project at AT&T Bell Labs in1969. It is a stable, multi-user, multi-tasking system for servers, desktops and laptops. UNIX systemsalso have a graphical user interface (GUI) similar to Microsoft Windows which provides an easy touse environment.
UNIX was designed to be easily ported (moved from one hardware platform to another). Ithas been ported to everything from desktop computers to room-sized supercomputers.
UNIX allows many people to share the resources of a single computer simultaneously.
UNIX allows users to run multiple programs at once. Unlike most desktop operating systems,UNIX imposes strict constraints which keep ill-behaved programs from affecting other programs and the operating system itself.There are many different versions of UNIX, although they share common similarities. The most popular varieties of UNIX are Sun Solaris, GNU/Linux, and MacOS X. The UNIX operating systemis made up of three parts.
The core of the UNIX system. It is loaded at system start up (boot). It is a memory-residentcontrol program. It manages the entire resources of the system, presenting them to you and everyother user as a coherent system. It Provides service to user applications such as device management, process scheduling, etc.Example functions performed by the kernel are:
Managing the machine's memory and allocating it to each process.
Scheduling the work done by the CPU so that the work of each user is carried out asefficiently as is possible.
Accomplishing the transfer of data from one part of the machine to other
interpreting and executing instructions from the shell
Enforcing file access permissions.
We can interact with UNIX through a special program called the shell. The shell prompts youfor commands and hands these off to the operating system to be executed after you have typed themin. Commands are composed of two parts:
the name of the command itself