Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Sailing and Seamanship

Sailing and Seamanship



|Views: 1,187|Likes:
Published by ram091988

More info:

Published by: ram091988 on Jul 31, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





SAILING AND SEAMANSHIPBy Capt. Ron Glendinning1 IntroductionThis course has two phases: a series of 10 lessons giving you the background material that can be learnedwithout much practical experience. When you cruise on Keewatin, you will be able to put much of your background learningto use and you will develop additional practical skills; marlinespike seamanship (knotting), steering by compass, piloting incoral waters by eye, dinghy work, skin-diving, swabbing decks, etc. You will then fill out what you have learned in these pages.The objective of the course is to give you enough basic knowledge and practical experience to enable youto go cruising on a small sailing yacht, and to conduct your cruise with the maximum of safety and enjoyment. Therefore,the 10 lessons include, beside the basic elements of sailing, enough practical knowledge of chart and compass, tides, anchorsand anchoring, the Rules of the Road, management in heavy weather, etc. Hopefully, the information will keep you out of trouble, or at least, to get you out of trouble if you manage to foul up somehow.Much more detail on coastal and electronic navigation is given in our second course; the one you shouldtake before you undertake any longer cruises in waters completely unfamiliar to you. That course provides more detail on publications available to the mariner, more advanced chart work and some techniques of electronic navigation. However,unless you’ve had a fair bit of experience, the present course is the right one for you. So let’s get underway. We hope thatyou will have fun with this course and learn something as well.The schooner ‘Keewatin’
22LESSON ONEIntroductionIn this lesson, we’ll take a brief look at the parts of a sailing yacht that will interest you at this stage of learning howto become a capable seaman under sail.As in any branch of knowledge, the art of sailing bristles with terminology: jargon if you like, much of which datesfrom the glorious days when sailing ships and boats were the only vessels afloat. In those days, the sailor spoke what was practically a different language from that spoken by the landsman. This is perhaps not surprising when we consider howcomplicated the rigging of a large ship was. They might have 2 or 3 dozen sails and literally hundreds of lines to controlthem; every one of which had its own name and special place in the pin rail where they were made fast. A sailor had to“know the ropes”.Some yachtsmen today carry this penchant for jargon a little too far. We’ve met some that sound like Long JohnSilver at his most nautical. We will try to avoid the picturesque phraseology as much as possible, in the interest of clarity.This lesson, however, will introduce you to a number of terms, and it is necessary, if you are to understand us in futurelessons, that you learn them as painlessly as possible. In other words MEMORIZE THEM!Parts of the Hull The parts of a wooden hull are:Hull: the body of the boat, not including the spars and the wire and rope rigging that support and control the sails.Keel: the main longitudinal backbone of the boat into which all the upright frames and other supporting structures such asthe stem and the horn timber are securely fastened.Frames (timbers, ribs): these are the vertical supports that are sawn or steamed into the shape of the cross-sections of the hullat the various ‘stations’ or points long its length. In England, the term ‘frame’ refers to those that are sawn to shape from oneor more pieces of wood and ‘timber’ refers to those that are bent into shape after being made supple by steaming in a ‘steam box’. In North America, the terms are usually used interchangeably with frame being more common. ‘Ribs’ usually refer tothe frames of a small boat or canoe and are always steam bent, that is they are virtually cooked in a steam filled box until theyare flexible then placed into a position where they assume the shape of the boat and cooled.Bow: the front end of the boat. The term can also be applied to either side of the bow; for instance, the wind can be said tocome over the starboard (right) bow, or the Port (left) bow. Forward refers to a direction. Going towards the bow is ‘goingforward’. The Stem is the piece of wood, actually part of the keel at the bow.Stern: the back end of the boat. The quarters are the backsides of the boat near the stern. The wind can come over the portor starboard quarter. The transom is the actual piece or pieces of wood fastened across the stern of the vessel. To go towardsthe stern is to ‘go aft’.Rudder: the upright board or vane at the end of the keel that steers the boat. A tiller may be fastened to the rudderpost whereit comes through the deck. The tiller, which is really a lever, turns the rudder. Beginners find steering with a tiller a problemsometimes for you push it the opposite way from the direction you wish to go. A wheel is usually found on larger boats sinceit is linked to the rudder with considerable mechanical advantage. One steers a boat with a wheel exactly as one steers anautomobile.Deck: everybody knows what a deck is. Deck beams support it.Cabin: most cruising boats have one; it is where you live. The top of the cabin is called the coach roof when viewed fromthe outside.Planking: the wood that sheathes the sides of the hull that is fastened to the frames. An individual plank is called a strake….But we promised to keep the jargon to a minimum! Forget strake. The strength of a wooden hull depends upon the size andstrength of the components; keel, frames, deck beams and planking but more importantly, on the fastenings, the nails, screwsand bolts which hold it all together.Other types of constructionFiberglass is probably the most common material from which modern boats are made. It is a plastic; a polyesteresin, bonded to a fiberglass cloth or mat. Many layers of cloth and resin make up a hull. The material has great strength of its own, so a wooden keel and frames are not necessary. Strength in the transverse direction is usually increased by bonding bulkheads or partial bulkheads of plywood into the hull dividing the accommodations into separate cabins. Fiberglass vesselscan be quite large. The largest at this time of writing is 85 feet overall.
33Metal construction, usually steel or aluminum, is less commonly found in small yachts, although steel is the materialfrom which ships are built. Metal construction closely follows the method used in wood construction; keel and frames areconstructed and set up and plating is bonded to these in the place of planking. Metal hulls are very strong but corrosion issometimes a problem. Steel hulls influence the ship’s compass to a great extent making it necessary to employ an expert toovercome this effect.Ferro-cement is becoming increasingly popular as a material for building hulls. It is a type of steel-reinforcedconcrete. The metalwork creates the form of the hull: rods and mesh laid over a wooden jig. The rods and mesh are tiedtogether with wire, making a thin metal framework that is subsequently plastered with special concrete. Toweling attains asmooth finish. The finished hull is lighter than you would imagine since the thickness of the metal and concrete may be lessthan one inch. The method is suitable for amateur construction with the result that a fair number of ugly vessels have been produced. However, when properly designed and built, the boats are strong and seaworthy.Types of RigThe term rig refers to the particular arrangement of masts and sails found on a sailing vessel. We will restrict our discussion to those rigs seen on yachts. The rigs of large sailing ships are very complex and these days are of interest only tonautical historians. Ships use square rigs predominantly. These sails are rectangular and are supported from spars calledyards that are mounted from their centers on the masts and are free to swing. By adjusting the braces that control the yards,the sails can be pointed almost straight ahead (to go to windward) or across the vessel (running free).Yachts almost always use a fore and aft rig in which the sails are supported at their forward edges by masts or stays.Gaff and Bermudan Rigs: these terms essentially describe the shape of the mainsail of the yacht.Gaff Rig is a type of fore-and-aft rig named for a spar known as a gaff. The sail is quadrilateral, the upper side of which, is called the head, and is laced to the gaff. Two separate ropes called halyards raise the gaff. The forward end of thegaff has jaws that partially encircle the mast and are secured with a lanyard and parrell ball, allowing the gaff to pivot throughnearly 180 degrees without coming away from the mast.Bermudan Rig is also known as Marconi or jib–headed rig. It is the most common rig in these days of the pursuit of the ultimate in efficiency. Most yachts are designed to win races and races are usually won on the windward leg when abilityto point close the wind and make a good speed on that point of sailing is important. Since Bermudan rig is more efficient onthe wind, the gaff rig is never seen today on racing yachts. Note that because the Bermudan rig is more efficient when goingto windward, it does not necessarily mean that it is more efficient on all points of sailing. There is a good deal to be said for the gaff rig when the wind is from the side or behind the boat. In these cases, gaff rig may be more efficient.Interestingly, the Bermudan rig is probably more ancient than the gaff rig since it derives from a sail shape calledleg-o-mutton that can be seen today on the Bahamian conching smacks and on some classic Dutch yachts.Rigs and Rigging SparsContinuing with the parts of the boat with which you ought to be familiar, we’ll point out some features of the spars.Spares are poles that support the sails. Mast: everybody knows what a mast is. Keewatin, being a schooner, has two of them.The shorter one toward the bow, is the foremast and the taller one aft is the mainmast. With the gaff rig, a smaller pole issometimes found fastened to the top of a mast and supports a small sail called a topsail. The pole is called a topmast.Keewatin has one of these on the mainmast.The masts of a gaff-rigged vessel are usually shorter and thicker than those of a Bermudan rig if the sail areas areequal. Also, they are commonly solid wood, either laminated structures or the hearts of whole trees. Today, most Bermudanmasts are made of extruded aluminum.Boom: a spar to which the foot of some sails is fastened. The boom is joined to the mast by a pivoting fitting calledthe gooseneck.Gaff: another spar, at the head of a gaff sail, as already described.

Activity (83)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
royneal liked this
ccosta_26 liked this
offshorearmada liked this
มาลัย สามชาย liked this
pif63 liked this
minatsu liked this
trainormarino liked this
William Schroeder liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->