22LESSON ONEIntroductionIn this lesson, we’ll take a brief look at the parts of a sailing yacht that will interest you at this stage of learning howto become a capable seaman under sail.As in any branch of knowledge, the art of sailing bristles with terminology: jargon if you like, much of which datesfrom the glorious days when sailing ships and boats were the only vessels afloat. In those days, the sailor spoke what was practically a different language from that spoken by the landsman. This is perhaps not surprising when we consider howcomplicated the rigging of a large ship was. They might have 2 or 3 dozen sails and literally hundreds of lines to controlthem; every one of which had its own name and special place in the pin rail where they were made fast. A sailor had to“know the ropes”.Some yachtsmen today carry this penchant for jargon a little too far. We’ve met some that sound like Long JohnSilver at his most nautical. We will try to avoid the picturesque phraseology as much as possible, in the interest of clarity.This lesson, however, will introduce you to a number of terms, and it is necessary, if you are to understand us in futurelessons, that you learn them as painlessly as possible. In other words MEMORIZE THEM!Parts of the Hull The parts of a wooden hull are:Hull: the body of the boat, not including the spars and the wire and rope rigging that support and control the sails.Keel: the main longitudinal backbone of the boat into which all the upright frames and other supporting structures such asthe stem and the horn timber are securely fastened.Frames (timbers, ribs): these are the vertical supports that are sawn or steamed into the shape of the cross-sections of the hullat the various ‘stations’ or points long its length. In England, the term ‘frame’ refers to those that are sawn to shape from oneor more pieces of wood and ‘timber’ refers to those that are bent into shape after being made supple by steaming in a ‘steam box’. In North America, the terms are usually used interchangeably with frame being more common. ‘Ribs’ usually refer tothe frames of a small boat or canoe and are always steam bent, that is they are virtually cooked in a steam filled box until theyare flexible then placed into a position where they assume the shape of the boat and cooled.Bow: the front end of the boat. The term can also be applied to either side of the bow; for instance, the wind can be said tocome over the starboard (right) bow, or the Port (left) bow. Forward refers to a direction. Going towards the bow is ‘goingforward’. The Stem is the piece of wood, actually part of the keel at the bow.Stern: the back end of the boat. The quarters are the backsides of the boat near the stern. The wind can come over the portor starboard quarter. The transom is the actual piece or pieces of wood fastened across the stern of the vessel. To go towardsthe stern is to ‘go aft’.Rudder: the upright board or vane at the end of the keel that steers the boat. A tiller may be fastened to the rudderpost whereit comes through the deck. The tiller, which is really a lever, turns the rudder. Beginners find steering with a tiller a problemsometimes for you push it the opposite way from the direction you wish to go. A wheel is usually found on larger boats sinceit is linked to the rudder with considerable mechanical advantage. One steers a boat with a wheel exactly as one steers anautomobile.Deck: everybody knows what a deck is. Deck beams support it.Cabin: most cruising boats have one; it is where you live. The top of the cabin is called the coach roof when viewed fromthe outside.Planking: the wood that sheathes the sides of the hull that is fastened to the frames. An individual plank is called a strake….But we promised to keep the jargon to a minimum! Forget strake. The strength of a wooden hull depends upon the size andstrength of the components; keel, frames, deck beams and planking but more importantly, on the fastenings, the nails, screwsand bolts which hold it all together.Other types of constructionFiberglass is probably the most common material from which modern boats are made. It is a plastic; a polyester resin, bonded to a fiberglass cloth or mat. Many layers of cloth and resin make up a hull. The material has great strength of its own, so a wooden keel and frames are not necessary. Strength in the transverse direction is usually increased by bonding bulkheads or partial bulkheads of plywood into the hull dividing the accommodations into separate cabins. Fiberglass vesselscan be quite large. The largest at this time of writing is 85 feet overall.