CFL very simple. Many modern fluorescent lamps are operated at high frequency(typically at or above 30 kHz) which results in a reduction of energy losses both in thelamp and the control gear. The control gear size and weight are often less, the efficacyhigher, dimming where required is easier, and operation is silent.
HIGH PRESSURE SODIUM LAMPS
Light is generated by an electrical discharge in a gas containing sodium and mercury(sodium amalgam) contained in a sintered alumina arc-tube. High pressure sodiumlamps are used for road lighting, floodlighting and industrial interior lighting.
LOW PRESSURE SODIUM LAMPS
Low pressure sodium lamps consist of a U tube containing the discharge, and an outer heat reflecting glass jacket. The monochromatic light is concentrated in the yellow part of the visible spectrum which is close to the maximum sensitivity of the humaneye at normal lighting levels. The efficacy is the highest of all lamp types, but withvery poor colour rendering. Low pressure sodium lamps are used mainly for exterior applications such as road and security lighting (but are not suitable for repeated on/off (operation).
METAL HALIDE DISCHARGE LAMPS
Metal halide lamps have quartz or sintered alumina (ceramic) arc tubes, generallywith an outer glass envelope. Light output is from mercury and other metallicelements introduced in the form of halides. Metal halide lamps of the ‘protected’ typeare now available for operation in luminaries without safety screens. According to themix of elements, there is a wide range of efficacy and/or colour appearance, butcolour rendering is generally good. Metal halide lamps are generally used incommercial interiors, industry and floodlighting, and (in smaller ratings) for retaillighting.
HIGH PRESSURE MERCURY DISCHARGE LAMPS
The high pressure mercury discharge operates in a quartz envelope. Mercury lampswere used for illuminating road signs and industrial lighting but have largely beenreplaced by the more efficient lamps now available. Such lamps offer low costdischarge lighting where high efficacy is not important. They often incorporate a thirdelectrode for starting and in such cases the control gear required generally consistsonly of a ballast and a power-factor corrected capacitor.
Induction is a process whereby electrical power is passed from one circuit to another without the use of physical electrical conductors. It enables lamps to be constructedwithout the need for wire connections to pass through the glass or quartz envelope.Induction lamps are available as low pressure mercury lamps, using the sametriphosphor coating of the inner envelope surface as the familiar fluorescent tubes.The commercially available range of induction lamps is limited.