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LAMP INFO

LAMP INFO

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Published by: EJBSE on Jul 31, 2009
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LAMP INFOINCANDESCENT FILAMENT LAMPS (GLS AND REFLECTOR)
Filament lamps are used mainly for domestic and display lighting. There are manytypes of filament lamp, the most common being General Lighting Service (GLS) andDecorative. Their finish – clear, diffuse/pearl or coloured – is a significant factor intheir application. Reflector lamps are similar but have an envelope with an internalreflective coating. Advantages of filament lamps include low initial cost, simpleoperation (no control gear required) and good colour rendering. Disadvantages of filament lamps are low efficiacy (measure of the energy efficiency of a light source, ielumens per watt) and a relatively short life. Certain extended life filament lamps haveonly about half the efficacy of standard lamps. The light output of filament lamps is particularly sensitive to voltage variations.
HALOGEN FILLED FILAMENT LAMPS (TUNGSTEN HALOGEN)
The main reason for filling a tungsten filament lamp with a halogen gas is to preventevaporated tungsten from blackening the envelope. Tungsten halogen lamps also havean increased light output and/or an extended life compared with standard filamentlamps. The envelope is of small dimensions and made of quartz or hard glass. Somemains voltage lamps have an outer protective envelope. Lamps that are suitable for use in luminaries without a safety screen should be so marked. Otherwise, tungstenhalogen lamps should only be used in suitably enclosed luminaries. Extra low voltage(ELV) lamps are, in general, more compact than their mains voltage counterparts andthe small filament size can improve the optical efficiency of integral or externalreflectors. ELV reflector lamps make possible compact s.b. luminaires for displaylighting.
LOW PRESSURE MERCURY FLUORESCENT TUBES
The light output from a tubular fluorescent lamp comes from phosphors that convertenergy from a low pressure gas discharge into visible light. The colour temperatureand colour rendering are determined by the phosphor mix coated on the inside of thetube. The argon-filled T12 (38mm dia) tubes are being discontinued. The modernrange of krypton-filled triphosphor T8 (26mm) dia tubes should be the first choice for switchstart, quick start and high frequency luminaries. Such lamps have a higher efficacy, longer life, improved lumen maintainance and better colour rendering thanearlier types of tube. Triphosphor (or multi-phosphor) tubes offer a wide range of colour temperatures from very warm (2700k), warm (3000k) and intermediate(3500k) through to cold white (4000k), daylight (5000-5500k) and northlight (6000-6500k).
COMPACT FLUORESCENT LAMPS
 A Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) has the characteristics and advantages of linear fluorescent lamps but its compact size is achieved by folding the discharge path,retaining high efficacy. The two main groups of CFLs are those with external controlgear and those with internal control gear. High frequency control gear is nowavailable integrated into the CFL lampholder, making lamp conversion from GLS to
 
CFL very simple. Many modern fluorescent lamps are operated at high frequency(typically at or above 30 kHz) which results in a reduction of energy losses both in thelamp and the control gear. The control gear size and weight are often less, the efficacyhigher, dimming where required is easier, and operation is silent.
HIGH PRESSURE SODIUM LAMPS
Light is generated by an electrical discharge in a gas containing sodium and mercury(sodium amalgam) contained in a sintered alumina arc-tube. High pressure sodiumlamps are used for road lighting, floodlighting and industrial interior lighting.
LOW PRESSURE SODIUM LAMPS
Low pressure sodium lamps consist of a U tube containing the discharge, and an outer heat reflecting glass jacket. The monochromatic light is concentrated in the yellow part of the visible spectrum which is close to the maximum sensitivity of the humaneye at normal lighting levels. The efficacy is the highest of all lamp types, but withvery poor colour rendering. Low pressure sodium lamps are used mainly for exterior applications such as road and security lighting (but are not suitable for repeated on/off (operation).
METAL HALIDE DISCHARGE LAMPS
Metal halide lamps have quartz or sintered alumina (ceramic) arc tubes, generallywith an outer glass envelope. Light output is from mercury and other metallicelements introduced in the form of halides. Metal halide lamps of the ‘protected’ typeare now available for operation in luminaries without safety screens. According to themix of elements, there is a wide range of efficacy and/or colour appearance, butcolour rendering is generally good. Metal halide lamps are generally used incommercial interiors, industry and floodlighting, and (in smaller ratings) for retaillighting.
HIGH PRESSURE MERCURY DISCHARGE LAMPS
The high pressure mercury discharge operates in a quartz envelope. Mercury lampswere used for illuminating road signs and industrial lighting but have largely beenreplaced by the more efficient lamps now available. Such lamps offer low costdischarge lighting where high efficacy is not important. They often incorporate a thirdelectrode for starting and in such cases the control gear required generally consistsonly of a ballast and a power-factor corrected capacitor.
INDUCTION LAMPS
Induction is a process whereby electrical power is passed from one circuit to another without the use of physical electrical conductors. It enables lamps to be constructedwithout the need for wire connections to pass through the glass or quartz envelope.Induction lamps are available as low pressure mercury lamps, using the sametriphosphor coating of the inner envelope surface as the familiar fluorescent tubes.The commercially available range of induction lamps is limited.

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