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GB783405A.pdf

GB783405A.pdf

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Herculos company patents
Herculos company patents

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PATENTSPECIFICATION
783,405
Date
of
Application
and
filingComplete
Specification:
April
6,
1956.
No.
10633/56.
Application made
in
United
States
of
America
on
July
6,
1955.
CompleteSpecification
Published:
Sept.
25,
1957.
Index
at
acceptance:-Olass
23,
P(3X :4:5:1003B3).I nternational Classification
:-B04b.
COMPLETE SPECIFICATION
Improvements in or relating to Centrifugal Separators
We,
HERCULES
POWDER
COMPANY,
a corporation organized under the laws of theState of Delaware, one of the UnitedStates of America, of
900
Market Street,5 City of Wilmington,
State
of Delaware,"United States of America,
do
herebydeclare the invention, for which
we
pray
that
a
patent
may
be
granted to us,
and
the method by which
it
is to
be
performed,
10
to
be
particularly described
in
and by thefollowing
statement:-
This invention relates to the separationof liquids having different specific gravities by means of centrifugal force
and
15
more particularly relates to the separationof liquid explosive nitric esters from theirreaction mixtures..
In
a-ecordance with the usual method ofseparating liquid explosive nitric esters
20
from their reaction mixtures in either thebatch or continuous process, a charge of amixture of the ester and the spent acid isplaced
in
a separator
tank and
allowed to
stand
until the spent acid and ester sepa-
25
rates into two well defined layers. Theheavier spent acid is then drained
off
through the bottom of the
tank
and sentto acid recovery and concentration procedures
and
the . iquid nitric ester is then30 subjected to a prewash with sodium bicarbonate
or
equivalent and then sent
to
aneutralizer house where the explosive oil is
further
washed and dried
prior
to use.
In
the currently popular Biazzi process
it
has35 been found possible to employ a continuousgravity type separator
in
which spent acidis continuously withdrawn from the bottomof the
unit
and
liquid nitric ester from thetop.
40
A more recent modification of the Biazziprocess makes
it
possible to eliminate thesoda prewash and to
go
immediately to thefinal soda washes and emulsification step.
In
all of these prior
art
processes, however.
45
there is an undesirably large amount of
[Price
3/6]
nitroglycerin or other liquid explosivenitric ester present
in
the separator
tank
so
that
should
an
accident occur, theamount of highly sensitive liquid explosive present is undesirably large.
In
the 50older batch processes, all of the liquid explosive nitric ester made
in
the entirecharge is present
in
the separator
tank and
must be handled
in
this large amount
up
to the point of desensitization by emulsi-
55
fication. Even
in
a Biazzi process being
run
to satisfy the normal needs of a dynamite
plant
(2,500 pounds of nitroglycerin
per
hour) there will always be betweenabout
2()0
and
300
pounds of nitroglycerin 60in the system between the
nitrator and
theemulsifier.
The·
presence of even thisamount
of
liquid explosive
nitric
ester
in
the system is highly undesirable.Now
in
accordance with the present in-65vention, a means of separating liquid explosive nitric esters from their reactionmixtures has been discovered which willproduce the desired
output but
by whichonly a small fraction of the amount of 70liquid explosive is present
in
the system
in
shock sensitive state. Generally
des-
cribed the present invention is a centrifugal separator
for
liquids having
in
com-
bination a bowl mounted to revolve about 75its vertical axis, means for revolving thebowl, and collecting means for the separa
ted
liquid components, the bowl comprising a receiving chamber
at
the top thereoffor receipt of the liquid feed, a plurality
of
80
spaced passageways 'extending downwardly
and
outwardly through the wan of thebowl from a point adjacent the intersection of the bottom
and
wall
of
the receiving chamber, a separating chamber dis-85posed below the receiving .chamber and
in
communication with the receiving chamberthrough the said passageways, a dam disposed
at
the bottom of the wall of theseparating chamber and extending sub-90
 
2
783,405
stantially horizontall;v imvardly and thensubstantially vertically downwardly. aplurality of spaced exit conduits for theheavier liquid component leading out·5 wardly from the hOl'izontal surface of thedam
at
points adjacent the intersection
of
the wall of the separating
ch
am
her and thehorizontal surface of the dam. and aplurality of spaced exit conduits for the
10
lighter liquid component leading outwardly from the vertical surfaee of the, dam
at
points adjacent the bottom of
tIle
separating chamber. said exit conduits forthe liquid components being in communi-
15
cation with the said collecting means.Preferably, the passageways leadingdownwardly and ouhrardly from the receiving chamber will empty into an annulus formed in the wall of the
bowL
which
20
annulus then leads downwardly and inwardly into the separating
chamlJel'.
In
either event, the
wan
of the separatingchamber may
be
vertical
01'
may
be
suitably inclined. Preferablv, the
\vaIl
of the25 separating chamber
will
be
inclined
down
wardlv and ont,YardIy.
If
"desired,
the
e~it
conduits for theheavier eomponent may lead
dil'ectl;-;,-
out\vardh-either horizontally
01'
dOi'>l1wardlv
30
through the
bowl
and exit into the collecting means. Howeyer, as
will
he
speeific
allv illustrated,
it
is usually desirable tolead the heavier eomponent initially
down
wardly and outwardly and then
down-
35
wardly and inwardly into the
bowl
hel?w
the separating ehamber and then
prOVIde
other passageways which lead ouhvardlythrough the
bowl
at
a point sufficiently far
helow
the dam to allow adequate spacing
40
of the collecting means for the liquid
com
ponents.
It
is a characteristic, however,of all the embodiments of the present inyention
that
the separator
is
self-drainingand that
if at
any time the separator
is
45
shut
down,
any liquid separated or unseparated remaining in the sepamtol' willdrain freely either into the collectingmeans
01'
011t
the bottom
of
the separatol'.
,,\8
will
be
more specifically illustrated in
50
the prefe1'l'ed embodiments
of
the separator of the invention, the central portion orthe
bowl
will
be
open and readily
acces
sible for washing.Having generally described the centri·
55
fugal separator of the invention, morespecific illustration of the preferred
em
hOdiments
is presented in eonjunction withthe dra\ving wherein like numerals referto similar structural elements.60
In
the drawing Fig. 1 is a
part
elevational,
part
sectional side
'de",. of
a
com·
plete
de'vice
in accordance with the invention. Fig. 2 is a
part
s€etional,
part
elev
ational view of a further embodiment of a
65
receiving chamber
in
accordance with theinvention.
Fig'.
3
is
a
part
elevatiolla],part sectional dew of a
l'eceiYing
chambercontaining a pretel'l'eu type of
baffling'
structure which enhances the smoothnessof
flow.
Fig.
-4
is an enlarged sectional
70
view
of the separation section of the
de,oice
of the in\'ention.
In
Fig.
1,
a centrifugal separator
hadng
a
bowl10 is
supported
br
a support frame
11
and a shaft
12
which is rotatabh-moun·
75
ted in the support
11.
A
pulle~-
13
is
secured
to
the shaft
12
and is dri\'en
by
means not shown
hy
a
Y
belt
14.
The
bowl
10
has an annular receiving chamber
15
into which the liquid feed is introduced 80through inlet pipe
16.
Spaced passage·
wa~'s
17
are
f01'lUed
in the wall of the
bowl
10
and lead downwardly and
onto
wardly from holes
18
formed in the intersection of the wall and bottom of the re·
85ceiYing
chamber
15.
The passagewaysempty into an annular
gl'ooYe
19
formedin the wall or the
howl
10
which leads
downward]~-
and inwardly into the separating ehambel' or the centrifuge. The
90
separating: rhamber has
an
outwardly inclined
'wall 20
which terminates in
Cl
dam
21
'whjch
extends horizontally into theseparating-chamber and then yerticallr
downwardl~-
to the bottom of the separat-
95
ing chamher. An exit annulus
22
is
formedin the
dam
21
adjacent the intersection ofthe
walJ
20
of the separating chamber andthe horizontal surface
21
of the dam. Exit
<,ondnits
23
fOl'
the hea'der liquid c()mpo-100nent lead downwardly and
outwardl~'
to apoint shortof the outside surface of the
bowl
and then empty into communieatingconduits
24
leading downwardly and in
wardl....-
into the interior
of
the
bowl
below
105
the separating chamber. Spaeed exit
con
duits
25
for the heayier component areformed in the wall of the
bowl
belo'w
thetermination of the conduits
24
and emptyinto a
co11eeto1'
26
equipped with an exit
110
nozzle
27.
Spaced exit eonduits
28
for theHg'hter liquid component are formed in thevertical surface of the
dam
21
and extenddownwardly and
outwardl~-
throngh the
,va11
of the
howl 10
and empty into a
col-
115
l~tol'
29
equipped
'with
an outlet
nozzle
30.
The bottom of the
bowl 10
is sealedwith a plastic plug
31.
preferably of
pol~-
eth;dene
01'
of a polymer of tetrafluoro.ethvlene. such
as
that
known under the
120
Registered 'l'rude 1Iark "Teflon." which
eal~
he
easil;v-
l'emoyed for inspection
of
theinterior or the hmd. The collectors aresnpported
on
stools
32
'whirh
in
turn
restnpon a snpport member
33.
125
In
Fig. 2 a re('eh-ing chamber is shownwhich is equipped with plastic vanes or
haffie.;;
4n.
pl'ef'erabh
of
a polymer
01'
tetra·fluoroethylene. such
as
that known underthe Rigistered Trade 1Iark "Teflon."
130
 
783,405These vanes assist in the acceleration of Moreover, the centrifugal separators of thethe liquid feed prior to its exit from the invention
are
comparatively small with rel'eceiving chamber through the holes
17
spe{~t
to
the massive separation equipmentand passageways
18.
employed by the
art and
represent a mnch
3
5
In
Fig. 3 a receiving chamber is shown smaller capital inyestment. 70in which a
baffle 50
is employed
w
prevent The optimum speed of rotation for eachsplashing of the feed
as
it
is
accelerated
by
mixture of liquids to
1)e
separated
will
t
ofthe spinning bowl
10.
The
baffle50
con-course, vary with the mixture itself
and
sists of a semicircular sheet extending
180
0
the desired capacity
or
the equipment.10 around the chamber
15.
The
baffle
'1'he
preferred material of construction
75
approaches the bottom of the chamber 15 for the separators
and
the c.ollectors
is
hut
is spaced therefl'om by a narrow aper-stainless steel, although
any
other suitable
ture51.
The liquid inlet
16
extends material of construction may be employedthrough the top of the
baffle
atan
angle as desired.
It
is also pl'eferred to employ
15
and
introduces the feed against the
·baffle.
stainless steel for the baffles such as shown 80When the feed is introduced
at
a speed
in
Fig. 3 which
may
desirably be employedlower
than that of
the bowl, this structure to -prevent splashing
and
otherwise encauses the liquid to be smoothly accelerated hance the smoothness
of
feed to the sepal'a
and
to smoothly
flow
through the aperture tor. The acceleration baffles shown
in
Fig.20
51
and on to the edge of the bowl through
2
are not essential
and
if
employed are 85the holes
18
and down the passageways
17.
preferably made
of
a plastic such
as
aThe
separawr
shown
and
described
in
polymer of tetrafiuoroethylene, such
as
the drawings operates
in
the separation of
that
Imown
under
the Registered Tradenitroglycerin from its reaction mixture as Mark "Teflon"
01'
polyethylene.25 follows: The mixture of mixed acid and Since modification of the centrifugal90nitroglyeerin is introduced into the spin-separators disclosed will be
apparent
to
ning
separating chamber
15
through the those skilled
in
the
art
and which will
not
inlet 16. The incoming mixture is acceler-
depart
from the scope of invention,
it
isated during its travel across the bottom
of
intended
that
the invention be limited only
30
the chamber
and
during its downward
by
the scope of the appended claims. 95travel through the passageways
17.
The
What
we
claim
is:-
mixture is forced downwardly
and
in-
1.
A centrifugal separator for liquidswardly through the annulus 19 and
flows
having in .combination a bowl mounted 'tosmoothly over the intersection of the sur-revolve about its vertical axis, means for
35
face of the annulus
19
and
the downwardly revolving the bowl,
and
collecting means 100and outwardly inclined wall
20
of the sep-for the separated liquid components, said
aratingchamber
as
shown in Fig.
4.
,The bowl comprising a receiving chamber
at
components of the mixture
now
begin sep-the top thereof for receipt of the liquidarating as they proceed down the wan
20.
feed, a plurality of spaced passageways
ex-
40 The heavier mixed acid, shown by the tending downwardly
and
6utwardly 105heavy lines, proceeds to the outside of the through the wall of the bowl from a pointbowl while the lighter nitroglycerin forms adjacent the intersection of the bottom and
an
inner layer shown by the light lines.
<
the wall of the receiving chamber, a sepaThe mixed acid exits through the passage-
rating
chamber disposed below the receiv-45 ways
23,
24
and
25
into the collector
26
ing ehamber and
in
communication with
no
and
is withdrawn through outlet
27
and
the receiving chamber through the saidsent to the reeovel:y and concentration passageways, a dam disposed
at
the bottomsteps. The lighter nitroglyeerin is forced of the wall of the separating chamber andinwardly over the dam
21
and exits extending substantially horizontally in-50 through passageways
28
into the collector wardly
and
then substantially vertically 115
29
from which
it
is removed through out-downwardly, a
plurality
of
spaced exit
let
30.
The separation achieved is highly conduits for the heavier liquid componentefficient and the nitroglycerin removed leading outwardly from the horizontal surfrom the separator is
ready
for the final face of the dam
at
points adjacent the
.55
soda wash and emulsification steps.
It
has intersection of the wall of the separating
120.
been found
that
as c.ompared to the
200-
chamber and the horizontal surface
of
the
300
pounds of sensitive nitroglycerin pre-dam, and a
plurality
of spaced exit consent in the Biazzi system there is seldom duits for the lighter liquid component leadmore
than
from
2-5
pounds of sensitive ing outwardly from the vertical surface of
60
nitroglycerin present in the separator, the the dam
at
points adjacent the bottom of 125collector or the line leading to the soda the separating chamber, said exit conduitswash apparatus.
It
is, therefore,
apparent for
the liquid components being
in
com
that
the separator of the invention con-munication with the said collecting means.stitutes a great advance
in
safety as
com-
2.
A centrifugal separator according
to
,65
pared
to known methods of separation. Claim 1
in
which the
bmvl
has vanes formed t30

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