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Product Design for Sand Casting

Product Design for Sand Casting

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Published by Chinmay Das

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Published by: Chinmay Das on Aug 01, 2009
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08/18/2013

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Module-I of PDPTLecture Notes of Chinmay Das
 14
1.5 PRODUCT DESIGN FOR SAND CASTING
As in all manufacturing operations, certain guidelines and design principles pertaining to castinghave been developed over many years. These principles were established primarily through practicalexperience, but new analytical methods, process modeling, and computer-aided design and manufacturingtechniques are now coming into wider use, improving productivity and the quality of castings and resultingin significant cost savings. The design of the casting and the pattern equipment should be such that the costof all other operations is reduced to the minimum. Such operations may include finishing, or theelimination of finishing where possible, in whole or in part; assembly of one part with another part; andeconomical servicing during the life of the casting. Accordingly, product design process should be studiedunder the following categories:1. Design for economical moulding
 
Parting line
 
Bosses and undercuts
 
Coring
 
Simplified moulding2. Design for elimination of defects
 
Shrinkage defects
 
Distortions
 
Hot tears
 
Escape of gases3. Design for features to aid handling of castings
Design for economical mouldingParting Line
The parting line is the boundary where the cope, drag and the part meet. If the surface of the cope and dragare planar, then the parting line is the outline of the cross-section of the part along that plane. It isconventional that the parting line should be planar, if possible. The simplest parting line is that runningthrough the centre line of the casting. Unnecessary complexities in the parting line increase the cost. A verysmall of metal will always “leak” outside the mold between the cope and the drag in any casting. This iscalled the “flash”. If the flash is along an external surface, it must be machined away by some finishingoperation. If the parting line is along an edge or at the corners of the part, it is less visible – this ispreferred.(a) (b)Figure 1.5.1: Parting line modificationWhen an irregular parting results in a deep mould pocket, it may be more economical to redesign thepattern equipment and change over to a mould with a straight parting involving the use of cores. Thelocation of the parting line is important because it influences mould design, ease of moulding, number andshape of cores, method of support, and the gating system.
Bosses
These are frequently used to increase the sectional thickness of the housing in order to provide longer boltor tap holes or to improve the strength of certain parts of the casting. This may be cast satisfactorily if theaxis of the cylindrical boss is parallel to the direction in which the pattern is drawn out of the mould or if the centre line of the boss is in the parting plane. When this is not the case, the boss on the pattern must be
 
Module-I of PDPTLecture Notes of Chinmay Das
 15
loose, and the skilled technique of moulding loose piece pattern must be employed. The figure shows thepositioning of a boss well below a flange whose upper surface is chosen as a parting line. To mould thisdesign a core is required to permit removal of the pattern from the mould. In producing such a casting,accurate positioning of the core is difficult, and any shifting of the core results in surface irregularities. Asomewhat less complicated design extends the boss to the flange, eliminating the need for a core.Figure 1.5.2 : Modification of bosses to reduce dry sand core
Coring
Cores are placed in the mould to provide castings with contours, cavities and passages not possibleotherwise to obtain by normal moulding. The Fig1.5.3 shows an original design which required a core toform the interior of the casting. Redesigning the casting as shown in Fig 1.5.4, a green sand core can besubstituted for dry sand core, thus achieving the economy.Figure 1.5.3 : Eliminating dry sand core by modifying the draft angleWhen the cores cannot be avoided, the designer should strive to make them as simple as possible in theinterest of economy, by using simple surfaces which are easier to produce.Figure 1.5.4 : Simple core shapes
 
Module-I of PDPTLecture Notes of Chinmay Das
 16
Also the cores must be capable of being properly supported so that they do not get misplaced duringcasting. The arrangement shown in Fig.1.5.5 is not recommended because the core is left self supporting.For an item of this kind further support must be provided as shown.Figure 1.5.5 : Providing proper core supportIf several cores are needed, they are best positioned on the same parting line as shown in Fig.1.5.6.Figure 1.5.6 : Providing support for several cores
Simplified Moulding
Generally a two part moulding is simpler and economical compared to a three part moulding. But when thepart configuration, as shown in Fig.1.5.7, necessitates, it may be desirable to modify the mouldingprocedure by providing an external ring core to avoid the intermediate flask. But this is also an expensivealternative. The best choice would be to redesign by eliminating the bottom flange which completelyavoids the external core and thus is economical.Figure 1.5.7 : Redesign to reduce three flask moulding

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