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Impact of Mc Gregor's theory X and theory Y on contemporary management practice

Impact of Mc Gregor's theory X and theory Y on contemporary management practice

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Published by jerooba3851
"Douglas McGregor's most important legacy was neither Theory X nor Theory Y. It was his insistence that managers question their core assumptions about human nature...."
"Douglas McGregor's most important legacy was neither Theory X nor Theory Y. It was his insistence that managers question their core assumptions about human nature...."

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Published by: jerooba3851 on Aug 01, 2009
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05/11/2014

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OBARA ROBERT JEREMIAHTERM PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULLFILMENT OFBUS : PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENTLECTURER: PRO: WAIGUCHUAPRIL, 2009.
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The Impact of Mc Gregor’s Theory X and Theory Y on Contemporary ManagementPracticeI.Background information
Douglass Mc Gregor (1961) looked at different approaches to motivating people. Heclassified management and supervisory styles according to attitudes exhibited under twoextremes, calling these extremes theory X and theory Y. Under theory x, each pointrepresents an assumption of negative, adversarial and conflicting working attitudes and practices. Theory x managers assumed that:1)People dislike work and will avoid it if they can.2)People must be forced, bribed, bullied, cajoled or threatened to put out the righteffort.3)People would rather be directed than accept responsibility4)People avoid responsibility5)People are motivated mainly by money6)People are motivated by anxiety about their security7)People have little creativity, except when it comes to avoiding rules and prescribed directions.Theory ‘Y’ managers assumed that:1)Work is necessary to peoples’ psychological growth2)People want to be interested in their work and under the right circumstances, theycan enjoy it.3)People will direct themselves towards accepted and acceptable targets4)People will seek and accept responsibility given any encouragement to do so.5)The discipline that people impose on themselves is much more effective and can be much more severe than any imposed on them by managers and supervisors6)Under the right conditions, people are motivated by the desire to realize their own potential7)Creativity and ingenuity are present in everybody and grossly under-used inorganizations.2
 
Generally, theory X is the assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislikeresponsibility and must be coerced to perform.Theory Y is the assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibilityand can exercise self-direction.This theory was based onMaslow's hierarchy of needswhere he (Mc Gregor) groupedMaslow’s hierarchy into “lower order" (Theory X) needs and "higher order" (Theory Y)needs. He suggested that management could use either set of needs to motivateemployees subject to their characteristics and theory of description.
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Ketts;32)
II.Statement of the problem
Improving performance at work is the essence of management. Even if the rightequipment, skills and organizational framework are in place, the employees must bewilling to work. Motivation is required if employees are to successfully undertake thetasks that contribute to the achievements of organizational objectives. This motivation isdefined as the force that energizes behavior, gives direction to that behavior and underliesits tendency to persist. It is a set of attitudes and values that influence a person to act in aspecific goal-directed manner. Motivating therefore is a process of arousing andsustaining goal-directed behavior induced by the expectation of satisfying individualneeds. At the core of motivation is human needs satisfaction. In assuming that “lower order” needs motivate individual behavior, theory X can do very little to harness the
PhysiologicalSafety & SecurityLove (Social
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Esteem
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Theory Y - a set of assumptions of how tomanage individualsmotivated by higher orderneedsTheory X
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a set of assumptions of how tomanage individualsmotivated by lower orderneeds
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