A more political EU external action
sion procedure. The EP has equal standingto the Council of Ministers when decidingon the EU budget.
The role of NationalParliaments is also being strengthened,mainly due to a new mechanism for moni-toring the subsidiarity principle. Democracyat EU level is further enhanced through thepossibility of a “Citizens' Initiative”, whichmay lead to new dimensions in the involve-ment of citizens at EU level.
The Councillegislates in public, a great step forward fortransparency of the EU.
The President of the Council and the High Representative areboth required to brief and consult the EP ona more regular basis.
,appointed for two and half years, whichmay be extended once, replaces the systemof the rotating presidency. The Presidentconvenes, chairs and drives forward thework of the European Council. He overseesthe preparation of the work of the EuropeanCouncil together with the President of theCommission, based on the work of theGeneral Affairs Council.
member states for aperiod of eighteen months - with the excep-tion of the Council of Foreign Ministers (seebelow).
In future, the member states appointCommissioners based on a rota system.
: In responseto calls for differentiated integration, theTreaty includes some provisions which allowfor various speeds of integration and differ-ent degrees of cooperation. QMV allows acore group of at least nine states to moveahead, while unanimity will still apply inthe Council of 27.
Enhanced cooperation isalso allowed in the CFSP. Permanent struc-tured cooperation in the area of defencefulfils the same purpose (see below).
toimprove efficiency in the Union of 27member states and in preparation for futureenlargement. There is a new standard vot-ing rule in the Council, the
, which basically gives more weight topopulation figures, meaning that smallercountries loose their previous over-repre-sentation. The double majority voting wouldnot take effect until 2014.The Lisbon Treaty would provide for
. Cleared of all references to aConstitution, it lends itself to revisionsooner rather than later (see Box 1).
The design of development policy and theimplementation of development coopera-tion would primarily be affected by the newinstitutions involved in external action, asset out below.The new
as Vice-President of the Commission. In his firstrole he chairs the Political and SecurityCommittee
and the newly established
Council, which will be sepa-rated from the General Affairs Council.
It is unclear which of these fora handlesthe development, trade and enlargementtopics currently dealt with by the GeneralAffairs and External Action Council. In hislatter role, the EUHR will head DG RELEXand lead the EC’s group of external actionCommissioners. The EUHR will take part inthe work of the European Council , prepareand oversee implementation of the CFSP
,represent the EU in CFSP matters and inter-national organisations and conduct politicaldialogue.
Together with the Council, theEUHR, will
“ensure the unity, consistency and effectiveness of action by the Union.”
The EUHR will be assisted by a EuropeanExternal Action Service (EEAS).
The incumbent will be appointed by theEuropean Council (with the agreement of the President of the Commission) acting, if necessary, by qualified majority, and subjectto a vote of consent by the EP. Accordingto an agreed declaration, the EuropeanParliament can use suitable contacts to par-ticipate in the appointment process., even inthe initial phase in January 2009.
, including CFSP, on the basisof unanimity, further to proposals from theCouncil.
The President of the EuropeanCouncil – like the EUHR – is charged withthe task of representing the Union in CFSPand play a role in crisis situations.
There isa Secretary-General of the European Council,whose role and function is different fromthat of the EUHR.
right of initiative in the CFSP remains withthe Council. The EUHR can submit proposalsto the Council, for which he can request theCommission’s support.
The Commissioncan submit proposals for other areas of external action, jointly with the EUHR.A single procedure in CFSP called
replaces what is now called “common strate-gies” of the European Council and “commonpositions” and “joint actions” of the Councilof Ministers. The European Council’s deci-sions can cover
actionand there is an explicit reference to the pos-sibility of a
in additionto the geographic one applied up to now.
which before only accrued to the EuropeanCommunity. The European Community isreplaced by the EU throughout the Treatytext. This has a few implications in the EU’sexternal action. It would simplify the EU’srepresentation in international organisations,e.g., in the UN Peace-building Commissiondual representation of the Council and theComission will be replaced by a single EUrepresentative due to the 'double-hatting'proposals. Furthermore, in cases where mem-ber states are willing to forego their rightto speak, they can be represented by the EU.This would increase the weight of the EU asa group which is also one of the principalfunders of many multilateral organisationswhile reducing its own ‘multilateral image’.Legal problems and anomalies in relationto the signing of international agreementswill be eliminated.
The CommissionDelegations would become EU Delegations.The European Court of
Justice could possiblygain competences in new areas.
The Reform Treaty actually consists of two treaties:• The Treaty of the European Union(TEU)12, containing most of the insti-tutional provisions, resembling aConstitution;• The Treaty on the Functioning of theEuropean Union (TFEU)13, is more akinto implementing legislation; someof the provisions of the TFEU can bemodified with a simplified procedure.