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Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence

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Published by Siddharth

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Published by: Siddharth on Aug 01, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/24/2009

 
Artificial Intelligence
Intelligence should be placed in the context of biology:Intelligence
connects perception to action
to help an organism survive.Intelligence is computation in the service of life, just as metabolism is chemistry in theservice of life.Intelligence does not imply perfect understanding; every intelligent being has limited perception, memory, and computation. Many points on the spectrum of intelligence-versus-cost are viable, from insects to humans.AI seeks to
understand the computations required for intelligent behavior 
and to producecomputer systems that exhibit intelligence.Aspects of intelligence studied by AI include perception, motor control, communicationusing human languages, reasoning, planning, learning, and memory.
Turing System
Alan Turing, in a 1951 paper, proposed a test called "The Imitation Game" that mightfinally settle the issue of machine intelligence. The first version of the game he explainedinvolved no computer intelligence whatsoever. Imagine three rooms, each connected viacomputer screen and keyboard to the others. In one room sits a man, in the second awoman, and in the third sits a person - call him or her the "judge". The judge's job is todecide which of the two people talking to him through the computer is the man. The manwill attempt to help the judge, offering whatever evidence he can (the computer terminalsare used so that physical clues cannot be used) to prove his man-hood. The woman's jobis to trick the judge, so she will attempt to deceive him, and counteract her opponent'sclaims, in hopes that the judge will erroneously identify her as the male.
Artificial Intelligence as Science
 Intelligence should be placed in the context of biology:Intelligence
connects perception to action
to help an organism survive.Intelligence is computation in the service of life, just as metabolism is chemistry in theservice of life.
 
Intelligence does not imply perfect understanding; every intelligent being has limited perception, memory, and computation. Many points on the spectrum of intelligence-versus-cost are viable, from insects to humans.AI seeks to
understand the computations required for intelligent behavior 
and to producecomputer systems that exhibit intelligence.Aspects of intelligence studied by AI include perception, motor control, communicationusing human languages, reasoning, planning, learning, and memory
Task domains of Artificial Intelligence
 
Perception
o
Machine vision
o
Speech understanding
o
Touch (
tactile
or 
haptic
) sensation
Robotics
 Natural Language Processing
o
 Natural Language Understanding
o
Speech Understanding
o
Language Generation
o
Machine Translation
Planning
Expert Systems
Machine Learning
Theorem Proving
Symbolic Mathematics
Game Playing
Perception
 
Machine Vision:
 It is easy to interface a TV camera to a computer and get an image into memory; the problem is
understanding 
what the image represents. Vision takes
lots
of computation; inhumans, roughly 10% of all calories consumed are burned in vision computation.
Speech Understanding:
 Speech understanding is available now. Some systems must be trained for the individualuser and require pauses between words. Understanding continuous speech with a larger vocabulary is harder.
Touch (
tactile
or
haptic
) Sensation:
 Important for robot assembly tasks
 
Robotics
 Although industrial robots have been expensive, robot hardware can be cheap: RadioShack has sold a working robot arm and hand for $15. The limiting factor in applicationof robotics is not the cost of the robot hardware itself.What is needed is perception and intelligence to tell the robot what to do; ``blind'' robotsare limited to very well-structured tasks (like spray painting car bodies).
Natural Language Understanding:
  Natural languages are human languages such as English. Making computers understandEnglish allows non-programmers to use them with little training. Applications in limitedareas (such as access to data bases) are easy.
(askr '(where can i get ice cream in berkeley))
Natural Language Generation:
 Easier than NL understanding. Can be an inexpensive output device.
Machine Translation:
 Usable translation of text is available now. Important for organizations that operate inmany countries.In a not too far future develops for eleven-year old David in a research labthe first intelligent robot with human feelings in the shape. But its "foster  parents" are overtaxed with the artificial spare child and suspend it. Posedon itself alone David tries to fathom its origin and the secret of itsexistence.
Planning
 Planning attempts to order actions to achieve goals.Planning applications include logistics, manufacturing scheduling, planningmanufacturing steps to construct a desired product.There are huge amounts of money to be saved through better planning.

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