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Inspection of Faults in Textile Web Materials using Wavelets and ANFIS

Inspection of Faults in Textile Web Materials using Wavelets and ANFIS

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Quality is the watchword of any type of business. A
product without quality leads to loss and lack of customer
satisfaction. This is true in case of textile industries also. Textile
manufacturing is a process of converting various types of fibers
into yarn, which in turn woven into fabric.
Quality is the watchword of any type of business. A
product without quality leads to loss and lack of customer
satisfaction. This is true in case of textile industries also. Textile
manufacturing is a process of converting various types of fibers
into yarn, which in turn woven into fabric.

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Published by: Diego Alejandro Gomez on Oct 30, 2013
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03/30/2015

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Inspection of Fauts in Textie Web Materias usingWaveets and ANFIS 
B Venktesn uSRgthy PVidhylkshmi BVinoth
Department of Eleconics and Instrumentation Engineering Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode-638

Tamilnadu, IndiaEmail:sivavenkat88@gmailcom.vidhyalahmi@yahoocoin
Abtact:Quliy is he whword of ny ype of usiness. produ wihou quliy leds o loss nd lk of usomersisfion. This is rue in se of exile indusries lso. Texilemnufuring is  proess of onvering vrious ypes of ersino yrn, whih in urn woven ino fri. Weving proess isused o produe he fri or loh y inerling wo disin seof yrn hreds nmely wrp nd wef yrn. In exile indusries,quliy inspeion is one of he mjor prolems for frimnufurers.  presen, he ful deeion is done mnullyer produion of  suien moun of fri. The frioined from he produion mhine re hed ino lrgerrolls nd sujeed o he inspeion frme. The nure of hework is very dull nd repeiive. Due o mnul inspeion of hemnufured fri, here is  possiiliy of humn errors wihhigh inspeion ime, hene i is uneonomil. This pperproposed  PC-sed inspeion sysem wih enes of low osnd high deeion re. Boh norml nd fuly imges reproessed nd feures re exred y using Gry Level Coourrene Mrix (GLCM) nd lssiion is done usingdpive Neuro Fuzzy Inferene Sysem (NFIS). Proposedsheme performs
3666%
eer hn he exising miroonrollersed lssiion sysem.
Kewords:
NFIS; Texile Defe Deeion; GLCM; WveleTrnsform.
.INTRODUCTONThe ndian textile industry has a major impact on theworld economy trough millenniums. At present, all thetextile industries aim to produce good quality fabrics withhigh production rate. n the textile sector, there are huge lossesdue to faulty fabrics.The fabric is obtained by interweaving of wap and we y. The raw material for the garment industryis available in the form of continuous rolls. Nearly, 85% of thedefects in the gment industry are due to the faults found inthe fabrics. These faults are obtained in the fabrics due toirregular weaving of warp d we ya in the weavingprocess. Hence fabric inspection is utmost important formaintaining its quality.Most defects in cloth occur while it iswoven on the loom. Some of these fabric defects are visible,while others re not. Again some fabric defects may be
/$ ©
IEEEidentied during weaving and some aer weaving. Themual inspection of fabric material is not economical.Hence,the investment in automated fabric defect detection is moreeconomic when reduction in labor cost and other benets areconsidered.The various fault detection approaches for textile webmaterial is given in [1 ].An automated defect detection andclassication system enhances the product quality and resultsin increased productivity [2]. mproved gabor lters for textiledetection results in less computational complexity as well aspossibility of online implementation. Auto-correlation is usedas a robust algorithm for patteed and un-patteed fabricdetect detections [3]. n the fabric fault detectionmethodology, wavelet transform with multiresolution level 3gives better results than the other traditional methods likeFourier Transform and Sobel Algorithm of edge detection[4].Multi Resolution Combined Statistical and SpatialFrequency (MRCSF) methodology is the combination of rstorder and second order statical properties combined withspatial equency of multiresolution analysis. This methodsucceeded in classiing the fabric with repeated pattes asdefective or non-defective based on the MRCSF [5].Comparing with the traditional equency ltering techniquessuch as ideal, butterworth, exponential and trapezoid low andhigh lters, the multi-scale analysis ability of Wavelettransform performs much better, All the classiers requiretraining om the known classes of fabric defects. A largenumber of classes with large intra-class diversity remainasmajor problem in using Feed-forward Neural Network (FFN)nd Support Vector Machines (SVM) based inspectiontechniques [8]
&
[9].On detail review of the above literatures, an idea aboutfabric inspection method is proposed. The rest of the paper isorganized as follows. The proposed methodology with itsblock diagram is given in section . Section  discuss aboutthe wavelet transform. GLCM formulation and tureextraction is presented in section V. Results and

 
Discussionare presented in section V. Conclusion is drawn insection V.n this project, ofine inspection is made.. PROOSD THODOLOGYUsing C microcontroller, detection of fault is basicallydone by using Neural Network. The overall accuracy to detectfault is 76.33% [].The images of fabric material withdierent faults are captured and then processed. mages with No fault, Hole, Oil Spot and Hole with Oil Spot areconsidered for inspection.The proposed scheme tries tostrengthen the fault detection rate. t consists of ve majorsteps.
mage Acquisition
reprocessing
Wavelet Transform
GLCM formulation and Feature xtraction
ClassicationFirst images are captured using the CCD cameras. Thesecond step involves that the RGB color image into grayconversion and the histogram equalization. The third stepinvolves the wavelet transform of the preprocessed image.Thefourh is the formulation of GLCM and feature extractions,and the h step is fault classication using Adaptive NeuroFuzzy nference System (ANFS).There are two common types of scaning techniquesemployed for the fabric inspection cameras: line scannng andarea scaning. The disadvantage with the line scan cameras isthat they do not generate complete image at once and requiresexteal hardware to build up images om multiple line scans.For area scan cameras, the usage of transport encoders isoptional and the inspection resolution in both directions isindependent of web speed. n this project, the camera havinghigh resolution of659498 (HV ixels) with Charge CoupledDevice (CCD) sensor technology, which is capable of 71ames/second is used. The pixel data coming om the camerais converted into a digitized image by the ame grabber. Allweb inspection systems used for fabric inspection, have tocope with the mltiple camera inputs. Some systems do thisby using some kind of video multiplexer unit between thecamera and the ame grabber. A rather expensive way to copewith multiple cameras is to use one ame grabber unit percamera.  1394 FireWire cable is used for communicationbetween camera and Vision system, and theet cable is usedfor communication between the Vision system and workingstation (C). Web material images are captured tough thecamera using vision system with the help of Vision Assistanttoolkit, and then processed with the help of MATLABsoware.

n the proposed scheme, the image obtained om imagegrabber or digital cameras are preprocessed and analyzed forfault detection and classication. During preprocessing, thefabric color image is converted into gray scale image. Theconverted gray scale image is then histogram equalized andwavelet transform is performed, so that the resultant imagewill have the fault in an enhanced form. Thus the resultantimage will be more suitable with distinct fault for detection.Five co-occurrence matrices are calculated om theresultant image, four matrices in different orientations
=
k:
'
k
=
1,2,3,4
and the h matrix is constrcted asthe mean of the preceding four matrices calculated at dierentangles. Four independent statistical features are extracted omthe GLCM [11] and given as inputs to adaptive neuro-zzynetwork. The adaptive neuro-zzy system is used to classithe dierent type of faults. The block diagram of the proposedmethod of fault detection is illustrated in the Fig. 1.agees
!t
eocessgCasscato
t
atve eo-aveetzzy eeceasoyste
!
f
CeateaotactoFigure 1. Block diagram of proposed method.AVLT RANSFORMThe information that is not readily seen in the time domaincan be seen in the equency domain. To separate the low andhigh equency components of the image, scaling and waveletlter function coecients are used respectively.By usingthese nctions, the information contents of the image areseparated corresponding to low and high equencies.The wavelet is constrcted by scaling function satisingthe two-scale difference equations giving in (1) and (2) [12].
x
=
�L k 
hk 2x k
(1)
 
x
=
 k 
gk2x k
(2)Where,
gk
=
(_l) k h(l-
k
(3)The wavelet bases obtained trough the above (1) and (2)procedure be unique, orthonoal and have desired regularity[13].Multresolution decomposition using gabor lter resultsin redundant features at different scales. This is due to nonorthogonality. Orthogonal wavelets are not redundant and aresuitable for image denoisin and compressin.Biorthogonalwavelet usually has a linear phase property and issuitable for image feature extraction. The multiresolutiondecomposition using orthogonal and compact supportedwavelet bases can be used to avoid the correlation of featuresbetween the scales.Fig. 2. shows the result of Waveletdecomposedimages of web material.
]
-
-
'
.
'-
"!l
>l
(mIDJ
Figure 2. Two levels of wavelet decompositionV. ATUR EXTRACTONHROUGH GLCMmage analysis consists of two steps: Featurextraction and Recognition (Classication). Varioustecniques are presented like Markov Random Field (MRF),Gabor Filter, Spatial Gray Level Dependence Matrix(SGLDM), Gray Level Run Length Matrix (GLRM), andGray level Dependence Matrix (GLM) in [14]. Atpresent, research for texture feature extraction is focusedtrough GLCM.
A
 Gr Level Co-occurrence Matr (GLCM)
Features are extracted by computing GLCM, which is used todescribe the texture as a matrix of 'pair gray levelprobabilities. This helps to nd gray-level pairs, which are allmore dominant and which are all less dominant, and in somecases, t  applicable forstochastic textures by randomlydeciding pixel according to pair gray level probabilities.Fromthe GLCM, four features have been extracted. The extractedfeatures are Contrast,Correlation, nergy and Homogeneity.
C
Class cation
The ANFS is used for defect classication. The extractedfour features are considered as an input to the ANFS and itclassies the given input as either Not faulty image or Hole orOil Spot or Hole with Ol Spot. ANFS parameter details areshown in table
I.
TABLE
A
NETWORK ARAMETERParametersValues
 No. of nputs4 No. of Output 1 No. of Nodes 193 No. of Linear arameter405 No. of Non-linear arameter 24 No. of rules81Leaing methodHybridMS 0.0952
 
�.-
Figure 3. Architecture of the ANFS used for training andtestingV. RSULTS AND DSCUSSONn this paper, 40 images have been considered with 30 faultyimages, and results are compared with the existing systems forthe validation.The experiment is conducted in two phases:Training and Testing. e existing microcontroller basedfabric inspection is compared with the ANFS basedinspection system.Results obtained trough the proposedscheme are compared with the existing scheme and the results


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