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Copy of Conflict scolarly paper(1).doc

Copy of Conflict scolarly paper(1).doc

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Published by: Ambrose Tumuhimbise Muhumuza on Oct 30, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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INTODUCTIONConflict and it causes
A conflict has generally been defined as a situation in which two or more parties strive toacquire the same scarce resources at the same time.Conflict occurs when there is disharmony between two or more opposing forces. Theconflict can occur between people, in nature or within a person. The conflict can lastfrom a few minutes to thousands of years. There are various reasons for conflict;a) Miscommunication: The source of conflict can arise from one party not understandinganother party. For example, a wife states she wants to go to dinner and the husbandsuggests McDonald's. The conflict occurs because the husband did not understand thatthe wife did not mean fast food.
 b) No Compromise: When parties have taken a position and each is inflexible, conflictwill occur because there is no room for compromise.c) Beliefs: When parties have different belief systems, conflict can occur. For example,Christians believe in the Bible and its tenets, while Muslims adhere to theteachings of the Koran.d) History: If there is a history of conflict between the parties, it is a barrier to conflictresolution. For example, Palestine and Israel have many years of hostile history between them, which makes it difficult to resolve conflicts.e) Perceptions: Conflict can occur when parties have different perceptions. For instance,in high school, Susan may perceive that Kelly does not want to be her friend.However, Kelly may believe that Susan is a nice person but has been too busy tointeract with her.f) Desires: Internal conflict can occur when someone wants to do one thing but should doanother. For example, the student may want to see a movie with his friends butshould stay home and study for tomorrow's final exam. The conflict occurs between fulfilling a desire and being responsible.
Types of conflict
Conflicts are either Substantive or affective. Substantive conflict refers to instances inwhich group members express differences regarding goals, ideas, and actions. There isalways a fundamental disagreement over ends or goals to be pursued and the means for their accomplishment.This is farther divided into four 1.Conflict over the facts of a situation. Is there enough money to pay for the newroof?2.Conflict over the method or means of achieving a solution to the problem
Shouldwe take up a food collection for the poor in town or lobby the town council totake action on decent housing laws?
3.Conflict over ends or goals
Should this church be involved in direct politicalaction or is this a matter of concern for Christian individuals alone?4.Conflict over values
Values are the source of our goals and the means by whichthe church gains direction. Values tell us which goals are worth adopting andwhat means of achieving these goals is appropriately Christian. Should Christiansever be engaged in confrontation and agitation or should we always be reconcilersand peace-makers in every situation?Affective Conflict refer to conflicts that occur as a result of are emotional, social & personal differences. It can be due to issues of:
equity (fairness)
dissatisfaction of social needs (such as needs for inclusion, control & affection)
emotional states
 perceptionsAffective conflict comes from the perception that one is being attacked or criticized; it isthese perceptions that give conflict a bad name! Affective conflict should beavoided since it does not contribute to the productivity of the group nor does itenhance interpersonal relationships.
Challenges managers face in conflict management
In most organizations, conflicts increase as employees assert their demands for anincreased share in organizational rewards, such as position, acknowledgment,appreciation, monetary benefits and independence. Even management faces conflictswith many forces from outside the organization, such as government, unions and other coercive groups which may impose restrictions on managerial activities.Conflicts emanate from more than one source, and so their true origin may be hard toidentify. Important initiators of conflict situations include:

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