Un article de Quantic.
Special relativity is an extension of rational mechanics where velocity is limited to the speed of light c, aconstant in the vacuum of matter and radiation.
1 Speed limit2 Derivation of the Lorentz transformation2.1 Galilean reference frames2.2 Light invariance principle2.2.1 Relativity principle2.3 Expression of the Lorentz transformation3 Velocity addition law4 Minkowski metric5 Time dilation6 Length contraction7 Acceleration transformation8 Relativistic Newton's Second Law of Motion9 Kinetic energy10 Total relativistic energy E=mc
In classical mechanics, the absolute velocity is the sum of the velocity of the moving reference frame and thevelocity relative to the moving reference frame. In special relativity one has to take into account the speedlimit, e.g. the light speed. For colinear velocities, we get, as we shall show below :where v
is the"absolue" et v'
the relative velocity. According to the relativity theory, all the velocities arerelative; that's why the absolute velocity is replaced by the velocity in R, the observer's frame. The relativevelocity v'
is the velocity of the frame R' moving relatively to the observer in frame R. The frame R' moves atvelocity v relatively to R. This formula gives a speed limit as may be seen by replacing v'
by c to get v
=c. Foran inﬁnite light speed one gets the galilean addition of velocities.
Derivation of the Lorentz transformation
Galilean reference frames
In classical kinematics, the total displacement x in reference frame R is the sum of the relative displacement x’in R’ and of the displacement vt of R’ relative to R at a velocity v : x = x’+vt or, equivalently, x’=x-vt. Thisrelation is linear when the velocity v is constant, that is when the frames R and R' are galilean. Time t is thesame in R and R’, which is no more valid in special relativity, where t
t’. The more general relationship, withfour constants
and v is :The Lorentz transformation becomes the Galilean one for
= 1 et
Light invariance principle