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Experiment 4

Experiment 4

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Published by: Peter Hong Leong Cheah on Aug 02, 2009
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Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman ( Kampar Campus )Bachelor of Science (Hons) BiotechnologyYear 1 Semester 1Group 1Laboratory 1A ( UESB 1112 )(II) Atomic Structures and PeriodicityLecturer: Ms. Chong Foon YeeGroup Member:
1.
Ang Pei Wen ( 08AEB02216 )2.Chan Pei Sin ( 08AEB03544 )3.Cheah Hong Leong ( 08AEB03788 )Experiment No. 4Title: Preparation and Reaction of Boric Acid, H
3
BO
3
Date: 25 June 2008
 
Title: Preparation and Reaction of Boric Acid, H
3
BO
3
Objectives:
-
Synthesis boric acid B(OH)
3
from sodium tetraborate as starting material.
-
Used crystallization technique to obtain the final product.
-
Understand the physical properties of the crystal structure of boric acid.Theory and Background:Boron is a Period 2, Group 3 element. Therefore, it is the first element of the p-block elements in periodic table. Boron has the atomic number of 5, meaning that each boronatoms consist of 5 protons in the nucleus that is surrounded by 5 electrons attracted tothe nucleus.The electronic configuration of Boron is 1s²2s²2p¹. Boron consists of two isotopes: B-10 (19.6%) and B-11 (80.4%), making its average atomic mass in the periodic tablebecomes 10.81. Having only 3 valence electron, boron have a lower electronegativitycompared to carbon, its neighbour in the same period. The electron deficiency in boronatom also cause it to has a high tendency to form polyhedral molecules with other atomsof other elements, for example: oxygen.Boron is the first element in its group and it has properties different from otherelements in that group. Instead it has properties similar to the second element in thenext group (silicon) --------- Diagonal relationship. Similar to silicon, as pure element,boron is a metalloid. Besides, boron also behaves semiconductivity and form a network of giant covalent metalloid with strong covalent bonds between atoms. Similar to silicon,boron mostly found in nature as oxygenated mineral, which is commonly known asboron ore. Different from other elements in its group, boron also have a much higherionization energy than other elements in its group and much less reactive at roomtemperature. Besides, boron also has very high melting point (2573K) and boiling point(4203K). due to its high tendency to gain electron-rich atoms, especially oxygen, pureboron is not exist in the nature ( just like silicon ).Boron has electronic configuration of 1s² 2s²2p¹
 
and thus will undergoes sp²hybridization when bonded to oxygen atoms to form a trigonal planar molecule or ion,boron oxide, BO
3
. However, the boron atom in the trigonal planar BO
3
is still notachieve the octet electron configuration which is stable. Therefore, the boron atom canstill accept a pair of electrons from a oxygen atom, forming a dative bond with it. Theresult of the dative bond is tetrahedral BO
4
molecule.O
ˉ
O
ˉ
B B
ˉ
O O
ˉ ˉ
O O
ˉ
O
ˉ
Trigonal planar BO
3
Tetrahedral BO
4
 
Although there several kinds of boron ore in nature, for example: ulexite, colemanite,and kernite, the most common boron ore is borax. Borax which is always found in thedessert, is actually sodium tetraborate, Na
2
B
4
O
7
. 10H
2
O. Borax is often used as washingagent, borax has been used as a house hold cleaning agent for decades. Borax consists of mainly borate ion, B
4
O
5
(OH)
4
²
-
. Reaction of borax with acids, for examples:hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid, will results in boric acid.Experiment Procedures:Apparatus and Materials-
Sodium tetraborate
Concentrated hydrochloric acid
Concentrated sulphuric acid
Methyl red indicator
Mannitol
Beaker
Methanol
Distilled water
Electric heater
Ice
Test tube
Test tube rack 
Glass rod
Suction funnel
Suction pump
Filter flask 
Filter paper
Spatula
Watch glass
Splint

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