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Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Kampar Campus) Bachelor of Science (Hons)

Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Kampar Campus) Bachelor of Science (Hons)



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Published by: Peter Hong Leong Cheah on Aug 02, 2009
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Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Kampar Campus)Bachelor of Science (Hons) BiotechnologyYear 1 Semester 2Group 1Laboratory 1B (UESB 1212)(II) The Properties of Matter Lecturer: Ms. Chew Yin Hoon
Student’s Name: Cheah Hong LeongStudent’s ID: 08AIB03788Experiment No. 1Title: Determination of the Enthalpy Change of Reaction of aMonobasic Acid with Sodium Hydroxide.Date: 20 January 2009
Title: Determination of the Enthalpy Change of Reaction of a Monobasic Acid withSodium Hydroxide.Objective:
To determine the calorimeter constant of a given Dewar flask (calorimeter).-To determine the enthalpy change of the reaction between nitric acid with sodiumhydroxide.Introduction:Thermodynamic is the study of energy and heat in motion. The enthalpy is the heatcontent of a material under a state. Usually there are changes in enthalpy of a materialwhen any chemical or physical changes take place. This is due to the chemical bondsformation and deformation that occur during the reaction. When the chemical bonds isformed, energy is released to the environment, while when chemical bonds is breaked,energy is required in order to break the bonds. Therefore, any chemical changes that take place will lead to the changes in enthalpy of the material.In a laboratory, it is hard to measure accurately the transfers of heat in a particular reaction. To measure accurately the transfers of heat in a reaction, the reaction must beoccurs in an isolated system from the surrounding environment. In other words, thereaction must be occurs adiabatically so that no heat, or at least minimum of heat cantransfers to and from the surrounding environment.The isolated system can be provided by the calorimeter. Calorimeter is an apparatus usedto measure the heat change (enthalpy change). There are many kinds of calorimeters; oneof the commonly used in a laboratory is the Dewar flask. Dewar flask is thermos bottleapparatus. Dewar flask has an insulating vacuum space that does not allow any exchangeof heat of the content in it with the surrounding environment. Therefore, all the content init will remain in constant temperature, any change in temperature must be due tochemical reaction takes place in it.Every calorimeter has a unique calorimeter constant. Calorimeter constant of the particular calorimeter must be determined first before the apparatus is used to calculatethe enthalpy of a reaction occurs in it. The calorimeter constant can be determined by firstmeasure the changes in temperature when a reaction of a known enthalpy, occurs in it.Then, the calorimeter constant can be calculated by the following formula:C
= ∆H∆T
Experimental Procedures:Apparatus and Materials--Dewar flas-Stop cloc
25 cm
graduated pipette-Suction bulb
10 cm
graduated cylinder -Burette-Retort stand-Beakers
Concentrated sulphuric acid ( H
Concentrated nitric acid ( HNO
)-1M of sodium hydroxide
0.1 M of hydrochloric acid ( HCl )-Methyl orange indicatoProcedure-Part 1: Determination of calorimeter constant of the given Dewar flask 
100 cm
of distilled water was pipetted into the Dewar flask (calorimeter).2.The water in the flask was stirred with the thermometer.3.Meanwhile, the temperature of the water was measured and recorded at interval of 1 minute over a period of 5 minutes.
About 2 cm
of concentrated sulphuric acid was introduced into the calorimeter  by a graduated cylinder at the end of the period.
The solution in the calorimeter was continually stirred; the temperature wascontinually measured and recorded at 1 minute interval over the period of 10minutes until the temperature value had become constant.6.The solution in the calorimeter was allowed to cool.7.A burette was filled in with 1M of sodium hydroxide solution and clamp onto aretort stand.
25 cm
of the sulphuric acid solution in the calorimeter was pipetted into a beaker.9.The sulphuric acid solution was titrated against the 1M of sodium hydroxidesolution so that the molarity of the sulphuric acid can be determined.

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