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Exp 4

Exp 4

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Published by: Peter Hong Leong Cheah on Aug 02, 2009
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Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Kampar Campus)Faculty of Science, Engineering, and TechnologyBachelor of Science (Hons) BiotechnologyYear 1 Semester 2Laboratory 1B (UESB 1212)(II) The Properties of Matter Lecturer: Ms. Chew Yin HoonStudent’s Name: Cheah Hong LeongStudent’s ID: 08AIB03788Partner’s Name: Chong Shi FernPartner’s ID: 08AIB02580Experiment No. 4Title: Determination of Relative Molecular Mass by Endpoint Cryoscopy.Date: 27 February 2009
Title: Determination of Relative Molecular Mass by Endpoint CryoscopyObjective: –Determine the freezing point of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO). –Determine the freezing point depression constant when naphthalene dissolved inDMSO. –Determine the relative molecular mass of an unknown liquid from the freezingdepression constant.
 
Theory and Background:Solution is the special type of mixture where the mixing between the solvent and soluteare only at molecular level. The formation of solution only possible when the free energyof the solution is favored, that means the free energy of solution is lower than that of the pure solvent.Freezing point depression is one of the colligative properties of solution, meaning thatthis property is universal to all solutes in all solution regardless the identities of thesolvent and solute. It also regardless whether the solute is electrolyte or nonelectrolyte.The freezing point depression is only dependent on the presence of solute in solvent andtheir quantities.When there is solute dissolved in a solvent forming a solution, the freezing point of thesolution is lower than the pure solvent due to the presence of added solute. Freezing pointdepression in a solution is due to the entropy of the solvent in different phases. Entropy isthe measurement of the disorder dispersal of energy and matter. Liquid phase has higher entropy than the solid phase.When a pure solvent melts or freezes, the solvent is in both solid-liquid phases, whichmean both phases are energetically equivalent. However, the entropy is temperaturedependent, the higher the temperature, the higher the entropy. The solute is dissolved inthe liquid rather than in solid, this causing the entropy of liquid phase is lowered by thedilution while the entropy of solid phase is unaffected. In the presence of solute, theequilibrium temperature between solid-liquid phases is shifted or more precisely loweredto another temperature.The freezing point depression can be expressed as freezing point depression constant, or cryoscopic constant. The depression of the freezing point of solvent is proportional to themole fraction of the solute in solution. The freezing point depression can be expressed based on the following equation:
 ∆T=k[WsoluteMsolute]
 Note:
 ∆T
= depression of freezing point (T
1
– T
2
)k = cryoscopic constant
 
W(solute) = mass of solute per 1000 g of solventM(solute) = molar mass of solute (g/mol)However, the above equation is only correct for very dilute solution which is ideal. Athigher concentration of solute in solution, the above equation will be less accurate due toderivation from ideality.Apparatus and Material: Boiling tubes Ice water bath Stopwatch Thermomete
 – 
20 cm
3
and 2 cm
3
of pipettes Suction bulb Retort stand –Dimethyl Sulfoxide Naphthalene Unknown liquidProcedures:Part 1. Determination of freezing point of Dimethyl Sulfoxide
1.
15 cm
3
of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) was pipetted into a boiling tube.2.The boiling tube containing the DMSO was immersed in the ice water bath untilhalf of the liquid was already frozen.
3.
The boiling tube was taken out from the ice water bath and clamped onto a retortstand.

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