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COT Flash Card

# COT Flash Card

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10/30/2013

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Visible light lies between what wavelengths (in nanometers)?
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Approximately 400-800 nanometers
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The wavelength of light makes a difference in how the eye perceives it. Whichcharacteristics of visible light is determined by its wavelength?
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Color
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Which color has the longest wavelength? The shortest?
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The longest: Red 650 nm-750 nm The shortest: Blue 446 nm-500 nm
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Polarized lenses block all light rays except those the do what?
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Vibrate in the same direction
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What common in-office test uses glasses with polarized lenses?
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Stereopsis (Titmus fly)
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Because of refraction a prism bends light rays toward the base or the apex of theprism. In what units is the power of the prism measured?
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Toward the base
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The power of a prism to bend light depends on the size of the angle at the apexof the prism. In what units is the prism measured?
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Prism diopters
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What does the formula P=C/D represent?
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This formula explains the relationship between the power of prism and ability tobend light. P is prism diopters, C is the displacement of the object in centimeters, and D is thedistance between the prism and the virtual image in meters
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Two prisms places base -to-base form the basis of what type of lens?
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Convex (plus)
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Convex (plus) lenses do what to light rays?
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Converge them
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Two prisms places the apex-to-apex form the basis of what type of lens?
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Concave (minus)
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Concave (minus) lenses do what to light rays?

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Diverge them
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Fresnel prisms are usually applied to the front surface or the back of a patient'seyeglasses?
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Back surface
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What is Pretice's rule?
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Its formula to calculate induced prismatic effect caused by spectacle lenseswhose optical centers have been decentered so they are not in line with a patients visual axis(pupil center). The formula is: Induced prism (in prism diopters)=lens power (in diopters) X Opticalcenter displacement (in cm)
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Find the total amount of prism induced in the following situations: Glasses RXOD +12.00 sph OS +10.00 sph - Both optical centers are displaced 5 mm temporally (decenteredout)
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OD has 6 prism diopters of Base Out / OS has 5 prism diopters of Base Out / The total is 11 prism diopters of Base Out
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Name the variable focusing power of the eye provided by the flexibility of thecrystalline lens.
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Accommodation
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Clinically, infinity is determined to be at what distance?
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20 feet (6 meters) and beyond
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What is the Prince rule used to measure?
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Near point of accommodation, and bifocal and trifocal add power
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Explain amplitude of accommodation.
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It’s the crystalline lens change (in diopters) from a state of no accommodation tomaximum accommodation
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What happens to a person's amplitude of accommodation as they age?
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It decreases
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The loss of accommodation due to increasing age is called what?
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Presbyopia
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What is the focal length (in meters) of a 3 diopter lens?
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P = 1/f (meters), 3 = 1/f (meters), 3f (meters) = 1, f (meters) = 1/3, or 33cm
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The strongest the power of a plus lens, the (more/less) distance it needs tofocus?
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Less
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Snell's law determines what?
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Whether the refracted ray will be bent toward the normal or away from it
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Index of refraction (IR) compares what?
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Speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a given substance
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What's the IR of water? What is the IR of crown glass?
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Water 1.000; crown glass 1.517
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What is axial length?
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The length of the eye from the front surface of the central cornea to the macula
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Hyperopic eyes often have axial lengths longer or shorter than average?
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Shorter (<22mm)
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Hyperopic eyes focus light behind the retina - do they have to much or to littleplus power?
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Too little
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Myopic eyes often have axial lengths longer of shorter than average?
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Longer (>24mm)
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Can myopic eyes use accommodation to being the distance objects into focus?
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No
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What is astigmatism?
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A refractive error caused by the nonsperical (cylindrical) surface of the cornea orlens, or both
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How is astigmatism corrected?
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With spherocylindrical lenses
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"With the rule" astigmatism is corrected by plus cylinders at or near what axis?
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90 degrees
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