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Chemistry Unit 5

Chemistry Unit 5

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Published by: Best Navaluck Pipithsuksunt on Oct 31, 2013
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Chemistry Unit 5
Rates
Collision theoryIn order to react in the first place, minus all the temperature and surface area malarkey, to particles must collide with each other and they “may react”. May react? Isn’t it enouh to ha!e two particles collidin with each other? "ell no they ha!e to collide the correct way round #$% with the riht enery for the &onds to &reak.
'rientation
o
Consider a simple reaction &etween ethene C(
)
*C(
)
 and (C+ they react to form chloroethane.
o
#s a result of the collision a dou&le &ond is &roken and a sinle &ond if formed
o
 he reaction can only happen if the end of the hydroen approaches the car&on-car&on dou&le &ond, any other orientation and the reaction cannot happen
o
In unsymmetrical compounds the orientation is !ery important as to whether the reaction will take place
#cti!ation enery
o
!en if the particles are the riht way round they still won’t react unless they ha!e a minimum amount of enery called the acti!ation enery./urface #rea he more finely di!ided the solid is, the faster the reaction happens. # powdered solid will
normally 
 produce a faster reaction than if the same mass is present as a sinle lump. he powdered solid has a reater surface area than the sinle lump.
 he e0planation
o
#s we know from the pre!ious section particles has to collide in order to react so if a particle has more surface area there is more places for the particles to collide and there fore react
o
Consider the reaction &etween hydrochloric acid and manesium
o
Increasin the speed of collisions increases the rate of reaction
 
Concentration/imply if you increase the concentration of the reactants you increase the rate of reaction.1ressure Increasin the pressure on a reaction in!ol!in reactin ases increases the rate of reaction. Chanin the pressure on a reaction, which in!ol!es only solids or li2uids, has no effect on the rate. emperatureIncreasin temperature increases the rate of reaction, &ecause when you increase the temperature of a su&stance this increases the kinetic enery of the particles within it. 3hey mo!e faster4 this increases the amount of collisions and more collisions ha!e the correct acti!ation enery, so there fore an increase in the rate of reaction. CatalystsCatalysts speed up rate of reaction &y creatin an alternate reaction pathway with lower acti!ation enery. Usually &y creatin intermediate compounds, the most important thin a&out catalysts is that they aren’t used up in the reaction or if they are they are recreated. Catalysts can &e homoeneous3same state as reactants4 or heteroeneous 3 different state4
Rate equations
Measurin rates
C'+'IM67 Measures chane in intensity of colour
C+'C8 #CI'$/7 ime taken for a particular amount of reactant to react99product to &e formed
M#// C(#$:9;'+UM C(#$:7 Used for as reactants9products
 IIMIC #$#+6/I/7 Measures chanes in conc of reactant9product when one is acid, alkali or iodine &y reactin with a known !olume of standard solution to neutraliseCalculatin rate e2uations
#!erae rate * the chane in concentration o!er time
ate * k<#=
0
<>=
y
"hen asked in a 2uestion to work out the rate e2uation, you will &e i!en a ta&le of !alues, when the concentration of su&stance # remains constant, you calculate how much > increases &y 3twice, 0, @04 and how much the rate in creases &y. If the rate increase the same amount this is first order.3 if the rate increases the s2uare 3) and @,  and A4 of the concentration of > this is second order4
8 * rate constant, constant at a particular temperature
 
<#= and <>= * concentrations of su&stances # and >
0 and y * partial orders
'!erall order * 0 B y he #rrhenius e2uation
luckily we don’t need to memorise this &ut its nice to understand it so you don’t panic in the e0am so here are what the !arious sym&ols mean
/tartin with the easy ones . . .
 emperature,
o
  to fit into the e2uation, this has to &e measured in kel!in.
 he as constant, 
o
 his is a constant which comes from an e2uation, p;*n, which relates the pressure, !olume and temperature of a particular num&er of moles of as. It turns up in all sorts of unlikely places
#cti!ation enery, 
#
o
 his is the minimum enery needed for the reaction to occur. o fit this into the e2uation, it has to &e e0pressed in  Doules per mole - not in kE mol
-F
 6ou may also come across it in a different form created &y a mathematical operation on the standard one7
GlnG is a form of loarithm. %onHt worry a&out what it means. If you need to use this e2uation, Dust find the GlnG &utton on your calculator.

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