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cashumanbiolongychapter9pqanswers.doc

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Published by: Best Navaluck Pipithsuksunt on Oct 31, 2013
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 Answers
CHAPTER 9 – GAS EXCHANGE
1.
Explanation of the relationship between the size of an organism and the way in which its cells are supplied with oxygen – any
six
 of the following points:
 
Small organisms have a large surface/volume ratio.
 
Examples are most protoctista/single-celled organisms.
 
n these small organisms diffusion/exchange over body surface/s!in sufficient.
 
"arger organisms need specialised respiratory/gas-exchange surfaces. #iffusion is a slow process.
 
$ells of larger organisms are a long way from the gas exchange surface.
 
$ells need to be supplied by a transport system/circulatory system/blood.
 Total 6 marks 2. (a) (i)
%he respiratory surface of an insect is found where the tracheole ends in a muscle. &' mar!(
(ii)
Explanation of how the structure of the gas exchange system of an insect ensures that there is a large surface area for gas exchange: )n insect has many tracheoles* which branch to form a large surface in contact with tissues. &+ mar!s(
(iii)
,ne way in which the transport of oxygen to a muscle in an insect is different from that in a fish – lood is not involved in insects. &' mar!(
 
(b)
nsects ventilate as follows – uscular contractions force air out of the tracheal system inspiration occurs due to elastic recoil when the muscles relax. &+ mar!s( 
Total 6 marks3.(a)
#escription of the mechanism of ventilation in a bony fish: %he operculum closes.
 
%he mouth opens.
 
0ater enters the mouth.
 
%he mouth closes.
 
%he floor of the mouth is raised.
© HarperCollins
Publishers
 Limited 2009Collins Advanced Science Human Biology
 1
 
 
0ater is forced out via the open operculum. &1 mar!s(
(b) (i)
%he percentage of oxygen removed from water – + mar!s for an answer of 2+3 with wor!ings shown
or 
 ' mar! for wor!ings that show an understanding of the method* but give the incorrect answer. &+ mar!s(
(ii)
n fish* counter-current flow is more efficient for gas exchange than parallel flow because the concentration gradient for oxygen is maintained over the whole lamella e4uilibrium is never reached. &+ mar!s(
 Total 10 marks4.(a)
Explanation of how the structure of human lungs is adapted for efficient gaseous exchange – include any
four
of the following points:
 
"arge numbers of alveoli provide a larger surface area.
 
5olding of alveoli increases the surface area.
 
 ) single layer of cells lining the alveolus reduces the length of the diffusion path.
 
%hese cells are flat &reducing the length of the diffusion path(.
 
$apillaries are surrounded by a single layer of cells &reducing the length of the diffusion path(.
 
$apillaries and alveoli are close to each other &reducing the length of diffusion path(. &6 mar!s(
(b)
Explanation of how the ribs and diaphragm bring about the changes in pressure* in labels
 A
to
 E
 – include any
 six
of the following in the answer:
 
A
 to
B
 – volume of lungs/thorax increases
 
due to contraction of diaphragm
 
and to contraction of intercostal muscles raising ribs
 
pressure decreases
 
B
 to
C
 – atmospheric pressure forces air into lungs
 
C
 to
D
 – pressure increased by elasticity of lungs
 
and by contraction of intercostal/abdominal muscles
 
D
to
E
 air expelled* so pressure falls. &1 mar!s(
 Total 10 marks5. (a)
%he effect of increasing the percentage of carbon dioxide in the inhaled air on the total volume of air breathed – %here will be little effect over most of the range but a large increase when the percentage of carbon dioxide is greater than 7.13. &+ mar!s(
© HarperCollins
Publishers
 Limited 2009Collins Advanced Science Human Biology
 2

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