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i2 –Governance- Solution for e-Governance

i2 –Governance- Solution for e-Governance

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Published by: ridhimaamit on Aug 03, 2009
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i
2
–Governance- Solution for e-Governance
-Ridhima Khamesra (ridhima_1@hotmail.com)1-A, Navlok Navratan Complex, Udaipur 
A
BSTRACT
Internet has made it possible today to provide high-qualityand cost-effective services relating to video, voice and datacontent through a single communication channel using appropriate terminal equipment.
 
The primary purpose of e-Governance is welfare of citizens and IT is just onemedium.
 
This paper suggests the use of i 
2
-Governance as a solution for e-Governance. The i 
2
– Governance stands for  Innovative and Integrated governance. This paper will analyze the two components exhaustively for better understanding. The paper focuses on the concept of Good Governance and the strategies needed to reform and henceto innovate Government of India. This paper analyzes theissues of integrated governance and strategies toimplement the same.
I
NDEX
T
ERMS
 
DAR& PG, GOI, India, e-Government, e-Governance,Swaraj, Su-raj, PPP, i
2
- Governance, NISG, NIC, MNIC,eProcurement, PPP, e- panchayats.
D
EFINITION
 
“E-governance is the application of information &communication technologies to transform the efficiency,effectiveness, transparency and accountability of informational & transactional exchanges with ingovernment, between govt. & govt. agencies of National,State, Municipal & Local levels, citizen & businesses, and toempower citizens through access & use of information.”
[1]
“E-Governance is defined as the application of electronicmeans in (1) the interaction between government andcitizens and government and businesses, as well as (2) ininternal government operations to simplify and improvedemocratic, government and business aspects of Governance.”
[2]
Integrated government is a government that unifies variousagencies and functions of the government such that theyappear as ONE to the citizens.Government are specialized institutions that contribute toGovernance and Governance is a process which describesthe links between Government and its broad environment – Political, social, economical and administrative.The impact of information and communications technologiesin the global environment is ever increasing and pervasive. Nowhere is this impact more profound than in thegovernment sector. Governments are striving to becomemore customer-centric in their approach to the delivery of services. The ideal of a seamless relationship betweengovernments and their clients (the voting public, staff, other government departments and stakeholders) has becomefundamental in the manner in which services are beingrendered.
I
NTRODUCTION
The universal public service has traditionally been viewed as being bureaucratic, unresponsive, cumbersome andinefficient. For this negative image to be dispelled, theuniversal public service needs to embark on radical change.The citizens today perceives that the Government is Slowmoving, Unresponsive, indifferent, Non Trustable,Inefficient, Rigid, Crisis driven, Autocratic and Opaque. Inkey interactions with Government Departments the commonanswers a citizen gets is “Come back tomorrow”; “File is notfound”, “Concerned official not available”. Such answersfrom Government Officers had lead a perception amongstcitizens that a Government Official is Insensitive, Corrupt,Inefficient, Comes late, seldom works, Causes harassmentand delay, Raises frivolous objections and is aloof from theground realities. Despite various officers putting their hardwork into Governance the perception amongst citizens is acause of concern. However the citizen today unlike past isaware of his rights, is educated, knows that there is a re-course through courts and is even empowered with Right toInformation
.
Internet has paved the path for paradigm shiftto government online to deliver their services and programs,to provide information and also to interact with the citizensall electronically. Change is one of the inevitabilities of themodern age. Change is evident in the way individualsinteract, in the manner in which business is conducted (e- business, for example), in the way new virtual communitiesevolve and indeed, in the way in which governmentstransact, the most notable example being e-Government. E-Government leads to e- Governance. E-governance cansimplistically be viewed as the delivery of public servicesand information by employing electronic means therebyimproving the efficiency and response timing of the servicedelivery. Various metaphors have been used to describe the phenomenon of change. These range from network to globalvillage to information super highway to systems.What, however, is important is that these fore-goingmetaphors relate to the development and maintenance of systems of communication to enhance the flow of information. Governments consume large volumes of information on which to base policy and strategic decisions.Because of the vast extent of existing information, much of 
- governance- Solution for e-Governance 
 
Ridhima Khamesra 
 
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it needs to be filtered and presented in a manner that caneasily be assimilated by the end user.The primary purpose of e-Governance is welfare of citizensand IT is just one medium. The focus of Government should be Good Governance whether adopted through electronicmedium or some other way. The Government structures inIndia are very complex. The focus of these structures is theadherence to rules and there is a total lack of focus on thefinal outcomes. It is a matter of research that a farmer inIndia interacts with over eight Government Departments,three levels of Government, multiple government agencies,PSUs and over forty interactions during a crop lifecycle. For establishing a mid level industry an industrialist interactswith over twenty departments while for a large business theinteractions may go to over fifty Government Departments.Apart from a few politicians, Bureaucrats and a fewJournalists an average citizen does not really is concernedwhether the National Security is managed by Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Defense, National SecurityAdvisor or the PMO. A citizen is essentially concerned withthe services and achievements.In simple terms Electronic Governance can be defined asgiving citizens the choice of when and where they accessgovernment information and services. While e-Governanceentails the processes used to provide services to the public,i
2
- governance is a tool for e-governance.
“In the happiness of his subjects lies his happiness; intheir welfare his welfare; whatever pleases him(personally) he shall not consider as good, but whatevermakes his subjects happy, he shall consider happy”
(Arthasastra, Book I, Chapter XIX, 39)Integrated Government,
[3]
or iGov is evolving conceptwherein an integrated approach to government is achieved.iGov is integration of services across federal, state,local government and various departments leading to asingle window for citizens. It is a government whichunifies all functions, agencies, levels of government and brings together a one government.The foundation of integrated government is based onthree databases – database for humans (citizens), property (land) and moveable property (vehicles). Thethree databases can provide integration of all services acrossthe country. Take for example a citizen wants to travelabroad and he approaches government for the passport. Itwill not be his concern to go to ministry of external affairs,he will just go to an integrated service centre andrequest for a passport (Note: A separate passport will benecessary as another id for the foreign countries onlyrecognize passport as a valid travel document). The citizenid links the system to the municipal database wherein all thedetails like date/ place of birth of an individual; father’s /mother’s name etc are retrieved. In order to determine hisECNR / ECR status his education records are retrieved fromnational university the income-tax department, and othesources. The crime database is checked to ensure that thereis no criminal case pending against the individual. A realtime approval is taken from the state intelligence agency for their input. His latest photograph, finger prints andsignatures are taken on the spot and matched with those onhis citizen id card. Within ten minutes the passport is issuedto the individual. Thereafter the details are immediatelytransferred to all Indian missions abroad, immigration check  points and all passport issuing authorities where there is arequirement of cross checking of passports. However in acountry like India where the constitution provides thedistribution of powers amongst centre, state and localgovernments, it may be a big challenge to achieve anyintegration of services. Nevertheless a few states in Indiahave started such initiatives with limited services. E- sevaof Andhra Pradesh and Bangalore One of Karnataka are afew examples which have started with limited services andare scaling fast. Another challenge may be that such amassive program cannot be successfully spearheadedthrough the information technology department. For proper implementation it has to be specifically spearheaded from aunit under the Prime Minister so that it has anauthority across all departments at the central governmentlevel and parallel units need to be created under the Chief Ministers for better e-governance implementation instates. A complete national consensus needs to be built for the concept.The various levels of integration are as defined:1.Integration of services of central, state and localgovernment2.Integration of goals of governance3.Integration of various agencies of government4.Integration of public and private sector services5.Integration of services of different departmentsWhile Delivering his keynote address at InternationalConference o n e-Governance (ICEG -2003, IIT, Delhi)on December 18, 2003 former President of India , Dr.APJ Kalam observed,
 I visualize an election scenario,where a candidate files his nomination from a particular constituency. Immediately the election officer verifieshis/her authenticity from the national citizen IDdatabase through multifactor authentication, through amultipurpose Citizen ID card. His/her civic consciousnessand citizenship behavior comes from the police crimerecord. His property record comes from the registration of land authority across the country. His income and wealthresources come from database. His education credentialscome from the university records. His track record of employment comes from various employers with whom hehad worked. His credit history comes form various credit institutions like banks. His legal track records come from
- governance- Solution for e-Governance 
 
Ridhima Khamesra 
 
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the judicial system. All the details arrive at the computer terminal of the election officer within few minutesautomatically by the act of e-governance softwareagents which crawls across the various state and central  government web services directories through the network and collects the information automatically an d presents the facts in real-time with out any bias
However the vision of Dr. Kalam appears to be a distantdream with each citizen still required to carry multiple idslike the ration card, BPL card , election card, studentid, employment id, pan card, health card and many more,
[4]
. Each state has different methods, procedures of recordmanagement different format to the extent that no other statecan read the records generated by one state lest alone aninternational agency
P
ARAMETERS
 
OF
G
OOD
G
OVERNANCE
Good Governance is characterized by the following few parameters:1.
Rule of Law
: It is the based on premise that no oneis above law and law will be equal to all.2.
Protection of Human Rights
: Human rightsconstitute the key rights to which every individualis entitled to. These include right to life, right toliberty, freedom of thought and expression, andequal treatment before the law.3.
Citizen Participation
: Citizen Participation is thefoundation of any democracy. It is essential fromthe perspective of exchange of ideas withingovernment, parliament, political parties, civilsociety, and academic in situation and citizens. Thesame can be indirect involvement of citizens or through their elected representatives. Its importanceis better explained in the words of the former Deputy PM, Sh. L.K. Advani
We should remember that Swaraj came not because of theexertions of a few leaders, but because millions of  people got energized by it, scarified their lives and,worked for its realization. In contrast, after  Independence, the agenda of Su-raj remained without the dynamic force of the will of the people. We left the fulfillment of Su-raj in thehands of some leaders. Su-raj cannot be achieved without people’s movement.
4.
Transparency
: Transparency in Government may be defined as the citizen's access to Governmentinformation and his understanding of the decisionmaking process in Government5.
Accountability:
Accountability in Government istwo fold, i.e., Political and Administrativeaccountability. The Political accountability isaccountability to the public and legislative bodies(or Parliament). Administrative accountability isfocused towards that fact that internal rules andnorms of Governance are followed whiledecision making in Government6.
Effectiveness and Efficiency
: Effectiveness inGovernment is about doing right things for thewelfare of citizens and efficiency is about doingthings in the most economical way (good input tooutput ratio)7.
Democratization
: Democratization is the transitionto a democratic political regime. In essence it istransition from an authoritarian regime to a fulldemocracy or transition from a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system.8.
Responsiveness
: Responsiveness is a paradigmin Government as to how fast the Governmentresponds in an effective way to a crisis or an issueat hand.9.
Consensus Oriented
: Consensus is the generalagreement among all the stakeholders associatedwith Government decision making. In a democraticsetup it may also mean an agreement between all political parties for a National issue.10.
Equity and Inclusiveness
: Inclusiveness is processof equitably including all set of people in societyirrespective of their sex, disability, financial status,sexual orientation, caste, religion, education background and more.11.
Coherence and Co-ordination
: Coherence andCoordination in Government applies that thedifferent organs and levels of Government willfunction in a coordinated way to give a coherentlook to the citizen.12.
Least Governance
: Least Governance is about thefact that the business of Government is Governanceand not to be in business. It is about deregulationand right sizing of Government so as to restrict therole of Government to policy making and sovereignfunctions only.13.
Customer-centric Governance
: is about aGovernment which is focused on services tocitizensIt is said that the stakeholders of government are the three pillars- Judiciary, Legislature and the Executive. But inreality the key stakeholders go beyond this list of stakeholders. In current framework of Government thecommon decision makers include Mafia, Lobbyists, PoliticalParties, Religious Leaders, Kitchen Cabinet (InformalAdvisors),Research/ Academic Institutions, NGOs,Military, Intelligence Agencies and Business Houses. It is because of these extra-constitutional influences that majorityof countries fall short of achieving Good Governance.However apart from the above there are a few more issuesthat come in way for achieving Good Governance and thesame may include Delay in Justice, Limited publicaccountability, Corruption, Lack of performanceincentives for Civil Servants, Oversized Government,
- governance- Solution for e-Governance 
 
Ridhima Khamesra 

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