The biochemical processes that occur whenan organism is breaking down glucose in the presence of oxygen(aerobic respiration).
The breakdown of glucose by cells in thepresence of molecular oxygen.
External openings in the chambered chorion of tardi-grade eggs and in many insect eggs, which permit gas exchangewith minimal water loss.
Allelic variants directly predisposing to adisease.
The underlying cause of a disease or other pathologicalcondition.
A nerve fibre that is derived from a sensoryneuron and connects a peripheral sensory structure to thebrain.
Nervefibresthatconductfromtheperipheryto the central nervous system. The term broadly corresponds tosensory fibres.
The axons that project from a structure to itstarget, providing input to the target.
The binding strength of one molecule for another,considered as the strength of binding of a single binding site toa monovalent ligand, e.g. ligand to receptor, substrate to enzymeor a single antigen-binding site on an antibody to its correspond-ing antigenic determinant. cf. Avidity
Bacterial adhesinsthatare notassociatedwithfimbrial structures.
A brief membrane potentialmore negative than the resting potential that occurs after anaction potential. It is due to the conductances through voltage-dependentpotassiumchannels(andcalcium-activatedpotassiumchannels in some neurons) that open as a result of the actionpotential.
The absence of immunoglobulins, andhence of antibodies.
The absence of parasympathetic ganglion cells inthe colon.
A sulphated polysaccharide rich in galactose- and 3,6-anhydrogalactose that is found in the walls of some red algaeand used in the food, medicinal and dental industries.
agarose gel electrophoresis
Electrophoresis carried out in anagarose gel, which is used to separate DNA fragments between100 bp and 50 kb in length.
reflecting the order of first appearances, with the oldest giventhe rank of 1 and the youngest a rank of
A drug or natural ligand that binds to and activates areceptor.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. A severe immuno-deficiency due to the depletion of T lymphocytes caused byinfection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
An exaggerated bronchoconstric-tor response to various stimuli, which results in bronchospasmand increased obstruction of the airways.
General name for several taxonomic groups of single-celledor simple multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms,including the seaweeds.
An outer cell wall component of some chlorococcaleangreenalgaethatconsistsoflongpolymethylenicchainsassociatedwith amide groups and minor amounts of
A polysaccharide composed of
-mannuronic acid and
-glucuronicacidresiduesinirregularsequences,foundprimarilyin some brown algae. Alginate is used as a thickener andstabilizing agent in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
10). Alkaliphilic microorganisms produce various extra-cellular alkaline enzymes, e.g. cellulases, amylases and proteases.
Microorganisms that grow optimally or very well atpH
9, often between pH 10 and 12, but which cannot grow, orgrow only slowly, at neutral pH.
Amildrecessivegeneticdisorderofhumansinwhichthe metabolic breakdown of tyrosine is abnormal because theenzyme homogentisate oxidase is missing. Affected individualsaccumulate homogentisic acid, which causes their urine andcartilaginous parts of their bodies to blacken.
Reactive chemicals that can transfer alkylgroups to cellular macromolecules, including DNA, RNA andproteins.
One of two or more alternative forms of a gene that canoccupythesameposition,orgenelocus,onthechromosome.Forsome genes, one allele is present in the great majority of thepopulation andisconsidered the normal or‘wild-type’ form. Forother genes, there are numerous different alleles within thepopulation, none of which clearly predominates.
For a given gene in a given population, thefrequency of occurrence of a particular allele, expressed as afraction of all the alleles.
Phenotypic differences or similarities pro-duced by different mutations at a single gene locus.
An environmental protein antigen or small-moleculehaptenthatprovokesanallergicreactioninasensitizedindividual.On initial encounter (sensitization) the allergen induces theproduction of allergen-specific IgE antibodies. Subsequent en-counter with the allergen induces allergic reactions mediated bytheseantibodies.Commonallergensaretheproteinsinpollensandother substances that provoke hay fever and asthma.
An adverse immune reaction against a common environ-mentalantigen(theallergen).Itoccursonlyincertainindividuals.
An antigen found only in some members of a species.
allocation of carbon
The flow of assimilated carbon into variouscompartments or biochemical pathways.
Describestissues, cellsormolecules fromone individualthatprovokeanimmunereactioninanotherindividualofthesamespecies. Allogeneic reactions are due to the genetic differencesbetweenindividuals, which arereflectedinantigenicdifferencesinsome of the proteins and other macromolecules they make.
allogeneic mouse strains
Strains of mice that possess differentmajorhistocompatibilitygenes,andthusproducedifferentmajorhistocompatibility antigens.
Agraftoftissuetoageneticallynonidenticalindividualof the same species. Allografts are usually rejected, due to thedifferences in major and minor histocompatibility antigensbetween unrelated individuals. Also known as a homograft.
Describes the immune response to a geneticallynonidentical graft from an individual of the same species.