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Optimal Deployment of Community Police Force

Optimal Deployment of Community Police Force

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Published by Jomar Rabajante
Operations Research, Police Location

Presented in the 1st UPLB-CAS Student-Faculty Research Conference held at UPLB on 8 December 2008. The conference is a centennial activity of the College of Arts and Sciences and is co-sponsored by the Philippine Council for Advanced Science and Technology Research and Development of the Department of Science and Technology.
Operations Research, Police Location

Presented in the 1st UPLB-CAS Student-Faculty Research Conference held at UPLB on 8 December 2008. The conference is a centennial activity of the College of Arts and Sciences and is co-sponsored by the Philippine Council for Advanced Science and Technology Research and Development of the Department of Science and Technology.

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Published by: Jomar Rabajante on Aug 03, 2009
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09/07/2010

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OPTIMAL DEPLOYMENT OF COMMUNITY POLICE FORCE
JOMAR F. RABAJANTE
Mathematics Division, IMSP, CAS, UPLB jfr_jomar@yahoo.com
Introduction
Police officers are generally the heroes of peace and order. It is theirmission to provide security among the constituents of a community. However,lack of resources hinders the police departments to carry out their servicesefficiently and effectively.Operations Research uses techniques that could optimize the level ofpolice services given limited resources, specifically the limited number ofmanpower. Manpower size is dependent on the budget allocated to thesecurity force.Optimizing the level of police services entails: (1)
minimizing the emergency response time 
; (2)
increasing security coverage and visibility 
; (3)
reducing personnel fatigue caused by rationalized shift-schedules 
; andimportantly, (4)
determining the best possible number of police officers to be allocated given the budget constraint 
.According to Geroliminis, et al. (nd.), multiple methods exist inallocating police personnel. There are deterministic models (used forplanning purposes) and stochastic/probabilistic models (used in operationalscenarios). Mitchell (1972) uses P-median Model to determine the policepatrol areas in Anheim, California. Backup Coverage Model maximizes thenumber of areas covered more than once (Daskin, 1983
). Larson’s M/M/n
Hypercube Queuing Model examines probabilistic models for emergencysystems and finds the optimal deployment pattern for a predetermined set ofpatrol areas (Larson, 1975 and 1978).
The Model
Goal Programming 
, which is a Multi-Criteria Decision-makingtechnique, is used to optimize the level of police services. Under thistechnique, the strategic spatial distribution of post/patrol locations aredetermined using the idea of
Maximum Coverage Location Problem (MCLP)
 solved by Binary Integer Linear Programming. Obtaining
minimum-size dominating sets 
for network clustering is used, either to create police districts,or to partition areas of mobile patrol units. Moreover, an algorithm is formedto schedule an eight-hour shift of police officers. Deterministic models areused in this study.A prerequisite to the implementation of the Maximum CoverageLocation Model is the construction of the community network. A typical policezone is divided into smaller regions called
districts 
. Districts are further
 
R
centroidDemandnode
subdivided into atomic regions. An
atom 
is determined by a circular regionwith
radius 
 
and a center, called
centroid 
. However, it should be noted thatradius
is different from the radius of a graph as defined in Graph Theory.
Figure 1. Atoms determined by a circular region with radius R.
Church and Revelle (1974) first introduced the Maximum CoverageLocation Problem, which is a combinatorial optimization problem. Given asimple and symmetric network
G=(V,E)
and positive parameters
P
m
 
and
R
t
,the task of MCLP is to find
S
subset of
V
, where
|S|
P
m
, such that
S
 maximizes the number of covered vertices whose distance from
S
is at most
R
t
 
(Mihelič and Robič, nd.).
In other words, the objective of MCLP is tomaximize the number of incidents that can be served within a given servicedistance (or within a corresponding desired response time). The followingGoal Program is a modified version of the traditional MCLP Binary IntegerLinear Program formulation of Long Ma (2003):where;
 
I
is the set of buildings or places to be covered;
 
 
J
is the set of potential police post/patrol area centroids;
 
 
 
R
t
 
is the desired service distance based on the desired responsetime;
 
d
ij
is the shortest distance from node
i
є I
to
j є J
 
;
 
w
i
 
is the weight of node
i є I
 
;
 
P
m
is the number of police officers to be spatially located (in adistrict); and
 
Z
i
 
is the set of police post/patrol area centroids that are eligible toprovide cover to demand node
 
i є I
.
Z
i
= {j є J |
d
ij
 
R
t
}
.
 
The model intends to yield an efficient solution, possibly a compromisesolution based on the relative importance of each conflicting goal (i.e.,maximizing coverage versus minimizing number of police officers). The goalis synonymous to Constraint 2 when changed to. This aims to obtain the numberof police officers less than the originally computed
P
m
, which can still coverthe nodes covered by the originally computed
P
m
. This intends tominimize the cost of hiring additional police officers. Moreover, if node
i
iscovered with two or more centroids, then the nearest centroid will be takeninto account unless that centroid has many workload.There are two ways to compute for the number of police officers. Theyare as follows:
Method 1: 
(maximum coverage is the priority)where;
 
A
v
is the area of the district in consideration;
 
A
d
 
is the desired area of an atom;
 
P
f
is the number of police officers in predetermined fixed posts(such as guards at the gate);
 
P
T
is the total number of police officers in the community;
 
k
is the number of districts formed;
 
P
a
is the number of additional police officers such as mobile unitdrivers, desk officer, team leader, etc.; and
 
S
is the number of shifts per day.
Method 2: 
 
(satisfying the budget constraint is the priority)
 

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