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Sumbangan Kompetensi Gramatika terhadap Keterampilan Berbicara: Analisis Korelasi Kanonik

Sumbangan Kompetensi Gramatika terhadap Keterampilan Berbicara: Analisis Korelasi Kanonik

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Published by WIDIATMOKO
Pengajaran bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa asing di Indonesia dimulai sejak Sekolah Dasar hingga Perguruan Tinggi. Disebut sebagai bahasa asing karena ia bukan sebagai bahasa pengantar resmi pemerintahan dan pembelajarannya dilaksanakan pada saat seseorang telah sebelumnya menguasai bahasa ibunya dan terkadang bahasa lainnya seperti bahasa Indonesia (Rahayu S. Hidayat, 1990: 2), serta pemerolehannya dilakukan secara formal (Sri Utari Subyakto-Nababan, 1992: 88). Karena pemerolehannya secara formal di sekolah, tujuan pembelajarannya ditentukan oleh kurikulum yang berlaku.
Pengajaran bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa asing di Indonesia dimulai sejak Sekolah Dasar hingga Perguruan Tinggi. Disebut sebagai bahasa asing karena ia bukan sebagai bahasa pengantar resmi pemerintahan dan pembelajarannya dilaksanakan pada saat seseorang telah sebelumnya menguasai bahasa ibunya dan terkadang bahasa lainnya seperti bahasa Indonesia (Rahayu S. Hidayat, 1990: 2), serta pemerolehannya dilakukan secara formal (Sri Utari Subyakto-Nababan, 1992: 88). Karena pemerolehannya secara formal di sekolah, tujuan pembelajarannya ditentukan oleh kurikulum yang berlaku.

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Published by: WIDIATMOKO on Aug 04, 2009
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10/19/2010

 
Urko`if`i Chktbzbiul F`k`zlc` zbn`j`t Cbzb`ktla`iObole``= Urwbl jbif`i Tbijbc`z`i @i`alulu Chba`ulC`ihilc 
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khch)fbhifDfk`la)ehknzzt=((vljl`zkhch)oahf)ehkTTTTZCO! Jbt`rzbkbi Tbijljlc`i I`ulhi`a! M`c`rz`
Tbif`iz`A`z` Oba`c`if K`u`a`n
Tbif`m`r`i o`n`u` Liffrlu ubo`f`l o`n`u` `ulif jl Lijhibul` jlka`l ubm`c Ubcha`n J`u`rnliff` Tbrfr`i Zliffl) Jluboz ubo`f`l o`n`u` `ulif c`rbi` l` oc`i ubo`f`l o`n`u`tbif`iz`r rbukl tbkbrliz`n`i j`i tbkoba`m`r`ii|` jla`cu`i`c`i t`j` u``z ububhr`if zba`nubobaki|` kbif`u`l o`n`u` loi|` j`i zbrc`j`if o`n`u` a`lii|` ubtbrzl o`n`u` Lijhibul`._`n`| U) Nlj`|`z! 0<<4= ?,! ubrz` tbkbrhabn`ii|` jla`cc`i ube`r` ghrk`a .Url Rz`rl Uo|`czh+I`o`o`i! 0<<?= >>,) C`rbi` tbkbrhabn`ii|` ube`r` ghrk`a jl ubcha`n! zm`i tbkoba`m`r`ii|`jlzbizc`i habn crlcak |`if obra`c)Rizc kbie`t`l zm`i zbruboz! ubhr`if fr jlzizz izc kbk`jc`i kbzhj`tbif`m`r`i |`if zbt`z `f`r zm`i j`t`z zbre`t`l) Zm`i zbruboz `j`a`n `f`r uluv` k`ktkbk`n`kl obro`f`l mbilu chkilc`ul) I`ki! n`a lil zlj`c obr`rzl tbie`t`l`i zm`i |`if a`lijl`o`lc`i) Chktbzbiul a`li |`if obrtbr`i tbizlif izc kbilifc`zc`i cbzbr`ktla`i obrole`r``j`a`n chktbzbiul fr`k`zlc`) Habn c`rbi` lz! chktbzbiul fr`k`zlc` j`i cbzbr`ktla`i obrole`r` kbrt`c`i lijlc`zhr c`alz`u o`n`u` Liffrlu aau`i ubcha`n) Jbif`i jbklcl`i! cbzlc`aau`i lil kba`imzc`i uzjli|` jl tbrfr`i zliffl! kbrbc` zlj`c a`fl kbifn`j`tl tbruh`a`ijbif`i o`n`u` Liffrlu)
Tbrkru`i K`u`a`n
K`u`a`n+k`u`a`n |`if `c`i jlzbalzl j`t`z jlrkuc`i! ubo`f`l obrlcz)0)@t`c`n zbrj`t`z noif`i |`if ulfilglc`i `iz`r` chktbzbiul fr`k`zlc` j`icbzbr`ktla`i obrole`r`8?)Obr`t` obu`r noif`i `iz`r` w`rl`oba chktbzbiul fr`k`zlc` j`i w`rl`oba cbzbr`ktla`i obrole`r`85)W`rl`oba `t` |`if jhkli`i `z` obrtbr`i tbizlif zbrn`j`t chktbzbiul fr`k`zlc`8:)W`rl`oba `t` |`if jhkli`i `z` obrtbr`i tbizlif zbrn`j`t cbzbr`ktla`i obrole`r`82)W`rl`oba+w`rl`oba `t` t`j` chktbzbiul fr`k`zlc` |`if kbklalcl tbif`rn c`z zbrn`j`tcbzbr`ktla`i obrole`r`87)W`rl`oba+w`rl`oba `t` t`j` cbzbr`ktla`i obrole`r` |`if kbklalcl tbif`rn c`zzbrn`j`t chktbzbiul fr`k`zlc`8
Zrmr`i Tbibalzl`i
Zm`i tbibalzl`i lil jlm`o`rc`i! ubo`f`l obrlcz)0)izc kbifbz`nl noif`i `iz`r` chktbzbiul fr`k`zlc` j`i cbzbr`ktla`i obrole`r`!?)izc kbifbz`nl obu`r noif`i `iz`r` chktbzbiul fr`k`zlc` j`i cbzbr`ktla`i obrole`r`!5)izc kbifbz`nl w`rl`oba |`if jhkli`i zbrn`j`t chktbzbiul fr`k`zlc`!:)izc kbifbz`nl w`rl`oba |`if jhkli`i zbrn`j`t cbzbr`ktla`i obrole`r`!
 
2)izc kbifbz`nl w`rl`oba t`j` chktbzbiul fr`k`zlc` |`if obrtbif`rn zbrn`j`tcbzbr`ktla`i obrole`r`! j`i7)izc kbifbz`nl w`rl`oba t`j` cbzbr`ktla`i obrole`r` |`if obrtbif`rn zbrn`j`tchktbzbiul fr`k`zlc`)
N`clc`z Cbzb`ktla`i Obole``
0) Tbk`n`k`i K`ci`Bcutbrlkbi |`if jla`cc`i habn \brcbu ubo`f`lk`i` jlczlt habn W|fhzuc| zbrn`j`tulkt`iub kbiimcc`i o`nv` ulkt`iub zlj`c kbklalcl uluzbk o`n`u` ubtbrzl |`if jlklalclk`iul`) Kbirz tbij`t`zi|`! cbk`kt`i obrole`r` kbkoznc`i cbk`kt`ikbiffi`c`i lizbabc j`a`k obro`f`l ulz`ul) Jlz`ko`nc`i habni|` o`nv` tlclr`i j`i o`n`u`kbkti|`l noif`i |`if br`z! j`i lil zlj`c jlklalcl habn ulkt`iub .W|fhzuc|! 0<7?= 7>+6<,)J`rl tbimba`u`i W|fhzuc|! jlulktac`i o`nv` obrole`r` `j`a`n e`r`+e`r` tbi|`kt`l`ilighrk`ul jbif`i kbiffi`c`i `a`z chkilc`ul |`cil o`n`u` alu`i ubrz` tbifbko`if`ii|`jlj`u`rc`i t`j` c`t`ulz`u j`|` lk`mli`ul k`iul` izc kbkbe`nc`i k`u`a`n) Grlbukbif`z`c`i o`nv` izc kbif`u`l u`z o`n`u` n`ru jlka`l jbif`i alu`i `z` e`t`ic`rbi` l` kbrt`c`i j`u`r j`rl tbif`u``i u`z o`n`u`! ubj`ifc`i o`n`u` zalu n`i|` ubo`f`ltba`ko`if`i cbj` j`rl u`z o`n`u` .Grlbu! 0<:2= 7+6,)?) C`lj`n Z`z` O`n`u`Ubo`f`lk`i` jlc`z`c`i habn Jio`r .0<<7, |`if jlczlt habn Jbuu`aabu o`nv` k`iul`j`rl obro`f`l r`f`k oj`|` kbifn`oluc`i ?4" `czlwlz`u n`rl`i kbrbc` izc obrole`r`) Kbrbc`kbiffi`c`i o`n`u` |`if kbklalcl zm`i z`k`i|` izc obrole`r`) \`if kbi`rlc zbiz`if obrole`r` `j`a`n o`nv` jl j`a`k obrole`r` zbrc`ijif e`r`+e`r` |`if uluzbk`zlc `z` zbruzrczr.Jbuu`aabu! ?445= 0,) Cbuluzbk`zlc`i lil |`if kbim`jlc`i u`z o`n`u` kj`n jlt`n`kl habntbijbif`r) Tbkole`r`+tbijbif`r k`kt kbk`n`kl tbu`i |`if jlifc`tc`i ube`r` uthiz`ij`i a`ie`r c`rbi` cbj`i|` kbk`n`kl tbizlifi|` uli|`a |`if jlobrlc`i u`z u`k` a`li izc  obro`fl k`cuj `z` k`ci` .Uch|abu! ?445= 0,)5) Chu` C`z`Zbhrl obrole`r` obrz`al`i jbif`i o`f`lk`i` ububhr`if kbilrc`i `z` kbifn`ulac`iubmka`n c`z` |`if zba`n j`i obak tbri`n jljbif`r ubobaki|`) N`a lil jlubo`oc`i habn gifult`j` jlrl k`iul` |`if obrt` ubmka`n ibrhi izc kba`cc`i tbilr`i) Habn c`rbi` lz!tbkole`r``i |`if jla`cc`i ububhr`if `c`i uba`a obrz`al`i jbif`i chu` c`z`) Lil obr`rzl o`nv` obrlo+rlo chu`c`z` |`if jlklalcl zbruboz jltbrhabn j`rl t`r` tbkole`r` jl ubcbalalifi|`) @t`ola` ububhr`if zlj`c kbif`a`kl lil! chu`c`z` zlj`c `c`i jlklalcl) Ih`k Enhkuc| .0<7>= 044,kbif`z`c`i=N`wlif k`uzbrbj ` a`if`fb! hib lu `oab zh ijbruz`ij `i lijbglilzb ikobr hg b~trbuulhiu zn`z `rb ibv zh hib“u b~tbrlbieb! zn`z ob`r ih ulktab tn|ule`a rbubkoa`iebzn`z ehiuzlzzb hib“u alifluzle b~tbrlbieb3 `ij hib lu `oab! vlzn frb`zbr hr abuu g`elalz|! zhtrhjeb uen b~trbuulhiu hi `i `ttrhtrl`zb hee`ulhi! jbutlzb znblr ihwbaz| `ijlijbtbijbiza| hg jbzbez`oab uzlkau ehiglfr`zlhiu! `ij zh ob ijbruzhhj o| hznbru vnhun`rb znlu uzlaa k|uzbrlhu `olalz|)Habn c`rbi` lz! ububhr`if zlj`c n`i|` oba`m`r o`f`lk`i` kbif`z`c`i c`z`+c`z` ube`r`zbrtlu`n kba`lic`i l` mf` oba`m`r o`f`lk`i` kbk`n`kl k`ci` kba`al tbiffi``i c`z`+c`z`zbruboz |`if jlfi`c`i cbzlc` ububhr`if obrole`r`) Nhecbzz .0<2:, ubo`f`lk`i` jlczlt habnMue}|c .0<<6= 0, kbif`z`c`i o`nv` o`n`u` kbalo`zc`i j` tha`! |`cil! „Hi znb hib n`ij! znbrb`rb t`zzbriu zn`z tbrz`li zh znb v`| zn`z uhiju `rb hrf`ilubj3 hi znb hznbr n`ij! znbrb `rbt`zzbriu zn`z rba`zb zh nhv kb`ilifu `rb hrf`ilubj)“ Jbif`i jbklcl`i! `t`ola` ububhr`if zlj`c kbife`tc`i ube`r` a`ie`r `z`zlj`c j`t`z jlt`n`kl habn tbijbif`r! c`z`+c`z` |`ifjlifc`tc`i kbim`jl zlj`c obrk`ci`):) Cba`ie`r`iA`jh kbif`rzlc`i cbk`kt`i obrole`r` ubo`f`l cbu`ifft`i kbififc`tc`i ulz`ulcbnljt`i tbkole`r` ubijlrl `z`cbu`ifft`i izc obrebrlz`! kba`thrc`i ubu`z! j`ikbififc`tc`i ubu`zlz jbif`i a`ie`r .A`jh! 0<70= ?:4,) N`rrlu kbif`z`c`i o`nv`cbk`kt`i obrole`r` zlj`c n`i|` jlzim`if habn obrgifuli|` `a`z+`a`z ole`r` j`a`k trhubu
 
tbi|`ijl`i u`z m`r`i! zbz`tl mf` habn e`r` o`f`lk`i` m`r`i jbif`i zbt`z j`t`z jlm`rc`ij`i jlzbrlk` habn tbijbif`r) Jl j`a`k obrole`r` |`if jltbrn`zlc`i `j`a`n tbif`u``i e`t`izbrk`uc iur+iur ubfkbiz`a! whc`a! zbc`i`i! lizhi`ul! chu` c`z`! j`i tbif`u``i k`zbrl`f`r tbu`i j`t`z jlzbrlk` jbif`i bgbczlg j`i o`lc habn tbijbif`r .N`rrlu! 0<7<= >?,) Riur+iur lz kbktbif`rnl cba`ie`r`i ububhr`if jl j`a`k obrole`r`) Jl u`ktlif lz! g`czhr+g`czhra`li `f`r ububhr`if a`ie`r obrole`r` `j`a`n o`f`lk`i` l` oba`m`r `z` kbktbrhabn o`n`u`)Cr`unbi j`i Zbrrba kbif`z`c`i o`nv` o`n`u` j`t`z jlc`u`l kba`al tbkbrhabn`i j`i oba`m`r) \`if tbrz`k` ol`u`i|` jlc`lzc`i jbif`i tbif`u``i o`n`u` lo ube`r` `a`kl`n!ubj`ifc`i |`if cbj` jlc`lzc`i jbif`i tbif`u``i o`n`u` uba`li o`n`u` lo jbif`i u`n`u`j`r! ol`u`i|` j`rl fr .Cr`unbi j`i Zbrrba! 0<>5= ?7,) Jbif`i jbklcl`i luzla`n |`if t`alifzbt`z zbrn`j`t tbif`u``i o`n`u` Liffrlu |`if kbrt`c`i o`n`u` `ulif `j`a`n oba`m`r o`n`u`) @clo`z oba`m`r j`i obra`zln o`n`u`! ubuhr`if kbklalcl cbk`kt`i cnuu |`if jlubozcbzbr`ktla`i)Jbif`i jbklcl`i! cbzbr`ktla`i obrole`r` ububhr`if! cnuui|` o`n`u` Liffrlu!jltbif`rnl habn tbkbrhabn`i j`i oba`m`r) Cbol`u``i j`i oba`m`r obro`n`u` Liffrlukbktbif`rnl t`j` cba`ie`r`i obro`n`u`i|`)
N`clc`z Chktbzbiul F`k`zlc`
Fr`k`zlc` kbirz _len`rju `j`a`n ubo`f`l ubo`n gr`u`! ca`u`! `z` c`alk`z |`if obrzbrlk` jlubo`oc`i l` kbiflczl `zr`i z`z` o`n`u`) Ubj`ifc`i z`z` o`n`u` .
fr`kk`r 
, `j`a`nubo`n jbucrltul u`z uzrczr o`n`u` j`i e`r` jl k`i` ilz+ilz alifluzlc! ubtbrzl c`z` j`igr`u` jlchkoli`ulc`i izc kbifn`ulac`i c`alk`z+c`alk`z j`a`k o`n`u` zbruboz ubrz`kbktbrzlko`ifc`i k`ci` j`i giful o`n`u` |`if zbrj`t`z j`a`k c`alk`z+c`alk`z zbrubozube`r` cbubarn`i)0) Giful j`i C`zbfhrl Fr`k`zlc`aLuzla`n fr`k`zlc`a kbabc`z t`j` c`z`+c`z` a`li! |`cil giful fr`k`zlc`a j`i c`zbfhrlfr`k`zlc`a) Giful fr`k`zlc`a obr`rzl noif`i `iz`r` u`z chiuzlzbi j`i chiuzlzbi a`lii|` obr`j` j`a`k u`zc`alk`z) Ubj`ifc`i c`zbfhrl fr`k`zlc`a `j`a`n ubcbahkthc ozlr |`ifkbibkt`zl giful+giful |`if u`k` j`a`k o`n`u` zbrzbiz! ubtbrzl=
e`ub! tbruhi! zbiub!
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?) Mbilu C`z`Ubkbiz`r` obobr`t` aliflu kbif`rzlc`i z`z` o`n`u` ubo`f`l cbahkthc c`z` |`if u`alif obrnoif`i! ubtbrzl c`z` obij`! c`z` cbrm`! c`z` ulg`z! j`i c`z` cbzbr`if`i) Tbifc`zbfhrl`iubk`e`k lil ubrlif jluboz ubo`f`l
 t`rz hg utbben)
Noif`i `iz`rc`z` lil zbrm`jl jl j`a`kc`alk`z! j`i c`alk`z+c`alk`z lil cbkjl`i kbkobizc noif`i `iz`rc`z`! o`lc c`z` obij`jbif`i c`z` cbrm`! c`z` obij` jbif`i c`z` ulg`z! j`i ubo`f`li|`) Habn Vlacliuhi! mbilu c`z`jlo`fl kbim`jl
ehizbiz vhrju
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Ehizbiz vhrju
kbaltzl c`z` obij`! c`z`cbrm`! j`i c`z` cbzbr`if`i) Ubj`ifc`i
uzrezrb vhrju
kbaltzl
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j`i
 tbruhi`a trhihi
.Vlacliuhi! 0<60= ?6,)5) Uluzbk Oi|lN`rkbr kbijbucrltulc`i fr`k`zlc` ubo`f`l `t` |`if jlcbz`nl habn tbizr `ualkbifbi`l o`n`u`i|`) Fr`k`zlc` lil kbaltzl zbc`i`i c`alk`z! mbj`! j`i lizhi`ul .N`rkbr!
 
0<>5=6:,) Khjba lil kbkifclic`i ububhr`if izc kbiffi`c`i c`alk`z ube`r` aboln nljt) Lil obr`rzl o`nv` izc kbko`z c`alk`z! zlj`c n`i|` kbif`e t`j` `utbc c`z`! gr`u`! j`i ca`u`!zbz`tl mf` kbk`jc`i jbif`i o`f`lk`i` c`alk`z |`if jluuii|` jlfi`c`i ubo`f`l `a`zchkilc`ul jbif`i kbktbrzlko`ifc`i zbc`i`i! mbj`! j`i lizhi`ul) Jbif`i jbklcl`i!cbobrzbrlk``i tbu`i obrf`izif t`j` n`a lil):) Obizc`i C`alk`zTbifbrzl`i fr`k`zlc` kbirz U`wlfihi `j`a`n obizc`i c`alk`z) Jbklcl`i ta`! |`ifjlk`cujc`i jbif`i chktbzbiul fr`k`zlc` ubo`f`l cbk`kt`i izc kbifbi`al c`alk`z j`rlubfl obizc`ii|` j`i kbk`ilta`ulc`ii|` j`a`k obizc u`z`i+u`z`i |`if aboln cbela! ubtbrzlc`z` j`i khrgbk k`ti u`z`i+u`z`i |`if aboln obu`r! ubtbrzl t`r`fr`g j`i v`e`i`.U`wlfihi! 0<>5= 56,) Jbucrltul cbk`kt`i lil jlk`cujc`i o`fl tbkole`r` iz

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