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Heat Sink Optimization

Heat Sink Optimization

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Published by Richard Lo

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Published by: Richard Lo on Aug 04, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Optimization of Heat Sinks with Flow Bypass UsingEntropy Generation Minimization
A thesispresented to the University of Waterlooin fulfilment of thethesis requirement for the degree of Master of Applied ScienceinMechanical EngineeringWaterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2006c
I hereby declare that I am the sole author of this thesis. This is a true copy of the thesis,including any required final versions, as accepted by my examiners.I understand that my thesis may be made electronically available to the public.Md Rakib Hossainii
Forced air cooling of electronic packages is enhanced through the use of extended surfaces orheat sinks that reduce boundary resistance allowing heat generating devices to operate at lowertemperatures, thereby improving reliability. Unfortunately, the clearance zones or bypass regionssurrounding the heat sink, channel some of the cooling air mass away from the heat sink, makingit difficult to accurately estimate thermal performance. The design of an ”optimized” heat sink requires a complete knowledge of all thermal resistances between the heat source and the ambientair, therefore, it is imperative that the boundary resistance is properly characterized, since it istypically the controlling resistance in the path. Existing models are difficult to incorporate intooptimization routines because they do not provide a means of predicting flow bypass based oninformation at hand, such as heat sink geometry or approach velocity.A procedure is presented that allows the simultaneous optimization of heat sink design param-eters based on a minimization of the entropy generation associated with thermal resistance andfluid pressure drop. All relevant design parameters such as geometric parameters of a heat sink,source and bypass configurations, heat dissipation, material properties and flow conditions can besimultaneously optimized to characterize a heat sink that minimizes entropy generation and in turnresults in a minimum operating temperature of an electronic component.An analytical model for predicting air flow and pressure drop across the heat sink is developedby applying conservation of mass and momentum over the bypass regions and in the flow channelsestablished between the fins of the heat sink. The model is applicable for the entire laminar flowrange and any type of bypass (side, top or side and top both) or fully shrouded configurations. Dur-ing the development of the model, the flow was assumed to be steady, laminar, developing flow.The model is also correlated to a simple equation within
8% confidence level for an easy imple-mentation into the entropy generation minimization procedure. The influence of all the resistancesto heat transfer associated with a heat sink are studied, and an order of magnitude analysis is car-ried out to include only the influential resistances in the thermal resistance model. Spreading andmaterial resistances due to the geometry of the base plate, conduction and convection resistancesassociated with the fins of the heat sink and convection resistance of the wetted surfaces of thebase plate are considered for the development of a thermal resistance model. The thermal resis-tance and pressure drop model are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data overiii

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