All matter is made of atoms; and all atoms are made of electrons, protons, and neutrons.
The copper atom has 29 electrons that orbit the nucleus in four shells.
Categories of Materials.
There are three categories of materials are used in electrons: conductors, semiconductors,and insulators.
: are materials that readily allow current. They have a large number of freeelectrons. Most metals are good conductors i.e. Silver and copper.
The semiconductors in their ability to carry current because they havefewer electrons than do conductors.
Insulating materials are poor conductors of electric current. In fact, insulatorsare used to prevent current
SILICON AND GERMANIUM ATOMS.
Two types of semi conductive materials are silicon and germanium. Both the silicon andthe germanium atoms have four valence electrons. These atoms differ in that silicon has14 protons in its nucleus and germanium has 32.
Zener diodes are primarily used as voltage regulators that regulate or maintain a constantDC load voltage inspite of changes in the source voltage or load resistance.
Two types of reverse breakdown in a zener diode are avalanche andzener.
The avalanche breakdown
also occurs in rectifier diodes at a sufficiently high reversevoltage.
occurs in a zener diode at low reverse voltages. A zener diode isheavily doped to reduce the breakdown voltage.
It is a material which has a resistance in between that of a conductor and an insulator.
A restraining force due to which further diffusion of majority carries is stopped from oneside of junctions to other.The
is heavily dopedThe
is lightly doped and is thin