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Zener Diode

Zener Diode

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Published by waqareng

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Published by: waqareng on Aug 04, 2009
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ATOMS
All matter is made of atoms; and all atoms are made of electrons, protons, and neutrons.
COPPER ATOM:
The copper atom has 29 electrons that orbit the nucleus in four shells.
Categories of Materials.
There are three categories of materials are used in electrons: conductors, semiconductors,and insulators.
Conductors
: are materials that readily allow current. They have a large number of freeelectrons. Most metals are good conductors i.e. Silver and copper.
Semiconductor:
The semiconductors in their ability to carry current because they havefewer electrons than do conductors.
Insulator:
Insulating materials are poor conductors of electric current. In fact, insulatorsare used to prevent current
SILICON AND GERMANIUM ATOMS.
Two types of semi conductive materials are silicon and germanium. Both the silicon andthe germanium atoms have four valence electrons. These atoms differ in that silicon has14 protons in its nucleus and germanium has 32.
ZENER DIODE:
Zener diodes are primarily used as voltage regulators that regulate or maintain a constantDC load voltage inspite of changes in the source voltage or load resistance.
Zener breakdodwn.
Two types of reverse breakdown in a zener diode are avalanche andzener.
The avalanche breakdown
also occurs in rectifier diodes at a sufficiently high reversevoltage.
Zener breakdown:
occurs in a zener diode at low reverse voltages. A zener diode isheavily doped to reduce the breakdown voltage.
SEMI-CONDUCTOR:
It is a material which has a resistance in between that of a conductor and an insulator.
POTENTIAL BARRIER:
A restraining force due to which further diffusion of majority carries is stopped from oneside of junctions to other.The
collector
 The
emitter
is heavily dopedThe
base
is lightly doped and is thin
BIPOLAR 
 
The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a current controlled device; that is the basecurrent controls the amount of collector current.A bipolar transistor is like two pn-junction diodes connected back to back. Used both Negative and Positive charge carrier. Operation depends on two types of charge carriers
hole and electros.TRANSISTOR 
Having only one type of current carrier either ( hole or electron). Itoperation depends on only one type of charge carriers either hole or electron.Transistor conducts through only one piece of semi-conductor material ( P or N ).Transistor connectionPositive voltagesPositive currents Signal inputCommon emitter CECommon Base CBCommon collector CCV
BE
 
and
V
CE
 V
CB
V
BC
i
BE
and
 
i
CE
 
i
CB
i
BC
BaseEmitter Base
FET (
Field effect Transistor: It is a voltage controlled device in which the voltage at thegate terminal controls the amount of current through the device. 
MOSFET.
( Metal oxide semiconductor Field Effect Transistor): It has much higher input impedance than JFET.Type:1)Enhancement-type.2)Depletion-type.
Diode:
A semi-conductor diode is just a PN junction. Since current flows only oneway, the main application.Diode: There are tow terminals of the diode are the anode (A) and cathode (K). Theanode is the p region and the cathode is the n region. When the anode is positive withrespect to the cathode, the diode is forward-biased and current (I
F
) is from cathode toanode
.The ideal diode Model:
The simplest way to visualize diode operation is to think of it as a switch. When forward-biased, the diode ideally acts as closed (on) switch, andwhen reverse-biased, it acts as an open (off) switch,
AMPLIFIERS:
Amplification means increasing the amplitude of a desired ac signalvoltage or current. The amplifier allows a small input signal to control a larger amount of power in the output circuit.
CLIPPERFS:
The half wave rectifier is basically a clipper that eliminates one of thealternations of an
ac signal.
There are two types of clippers: the series clipper and the shunt clipper. Each of thesecan be positive or negative. The series clipper contains a diode that is in series withthe load. The shunt clipper, on the other hand, contains a diode that is in parallel withthe load.
 
Clippers are classified
as being either series clippers or shunt clippers.
Shunt clipper”
A clipper that has an output when the diode is reverse biased ( notconducting)VL = _____RL______X VinRL + RS
CLIPPER ALLICATIONS:
Clippers are used in a wide variety of electronic systems. They are generally used to perform on of several functions:1.Altering the shape of a waveform.2.Circuit transient protection.3.Detection.
CLAMPERS:
The clampers are basically used to restore or change the dc reference of an ac signal.
CLAMPERS OPERATION.
The clamper works on the basis of 
switching time constants.Negative clampers vs positive clampers.
As was the case with clippers, the difference between the negative clamper and positive clamper is simply the direction of the diode.
Full wave rectifiers.
The full wave rectifier is the most commonly used type in dc power supplies.
HALF WAVE RECTIFIERS:
Because of their ability to conduct current in onedirection and block current in the other direction, diodes are used in circuits calledrectifiers that convert ac voltage into dc voltage.
The difference between full wave and half wave rectification
is that a full waverectifier allows unidirectional current to the load during the entire input cycle and thehalf wave rectifier allows this only during one half of the cycle.Effect of the Turns Ratio on Full wave output voltage: If the turns ratio of thetransformer is 1, the peak value of the rectified output voltage equals half the peak value of the primary input voltage.
Integrated circuit.
The most popular IC regulators have three terminals an input terminal, an ouputterminal and a reference ( or adjust) terminal.
BJT ( Bipolar junction transisitors).
The BJT is constructed with three doped semi-conductor regions separated by two pn junctions, The three regions are called
emitter
,
base
and
collector.

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