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Generalized Walsh and Hadamard Transform

Generalized Walsh and Hadamard Transform

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05/21/2013

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Generalised Walsh and Hadamard transform
Yumnam Kirani SinghCenter for Development of Advanced ComputingBlog GP, Plot E2/1, Saltlake Eelectonics ComplexKolkata-700091Email: yksingh@kolkatacdac.inAbstract:Proposed here are some new transforms, which may be thought as the generalizedversion of the transforms initiated by Walsh and Hadamard. Unlike Walsh and theHadamard transforms, where the transform kernels are symmetric matrices of 1and –1, here any two distinct real numbers, may be used as the elements of thetransform kernels. The kernel may or may not be symmetric. The proposedgeneralized Hadamard transform is symmetric, whereas the generalized Walshtransform is asymmetric. We also propose a symmetric transform kernel known as pseudo Walsh transform whose sequency is similar to that of the generalizedWalsh kernel. The existing Walsh and the Hadamard transform can be obtainedfrom them as a special case. Moreover these proposed transforms have linear timecomplexity and hence faster than FFT. The generalized transforms may find use inmany fields of signal processing and statistical data analysis.Keywords: Asymmetric matrix, Generalized Hadamard transform, GeneralizedWalsh transform, Transform kernel, Orthogonality, Pseudo Walsh transform,Sequency, Symmetric matrix.1.
Introduction
Transforms play important roles in engineering and applied science fields.Working on the transformed data is, sometimes much easier and more usefulinformation may be obtained from them. Fourier Transform, cosine transform,sine transform, etc are the common transforms based on sinusoids because of thecyclic nature of the sinusoids. Walsh transform and Walsh Hadamard transformare much simpler transforms as compared to sinusoid-based transforms, in whichthe kernel is made of 1 and –1. As a result these transforms can be implementedwithout any cost of multiplication operation. Hence Walsh and Hadamardtransforms are much faster than FFT. Because of simplicity and speed, peopletook interests in these transforms and used in different applications. Kak [9]applied Walsh transform for measuring randomness of a finite sequence.Similarly, Yuen [16] used it for testing random number sequences. Shih and Han[15] showed that it can be used for solving first order partial differentialequations. Corrington [5] used it for solving differential and integral equations.Edwards [6] used it in designing logic gates. Also these transforms are used for astronomical signal/image processing, coding and filtering operations. For introductory theory and applications of Walsh transform, readers are referred to
 
Beer[2]. In Statistics, Hadamard matrices are used in designing optimal weightingexperiments as well as experimental design (analysis of variance) models such asfactorial designs, Youden designs and Latin Squares. For comprehensive reviewof Hadamard matrices and their use in Statistics, see[7].The kernels of the Walsh and Walsh-Hadamard transforms are orthogonal and theelements of the kernels are 1 and –1. What accounts for the orthogonality of thesetransform kernels? Is it because of kernels’ elements being 1 and –1? Can wemake these transforms in generalized form? I.e.,Can we make an orthogonalkernels wherein the elements are any numbers other than 1’s?. That is a clear  possibility. That is the main theme of this paper. In the later part we will callWalsh-Hadamard transform simply as Hadamard transform.In this paper we develop the generalized orthogonal transform kernelscorresponding to Walsh and Hadamard transforms. And we also introduce a newkind of transform known as pseudo Walsh transform. We will show that Walshtransform and Hadamard transform are special cases of these generalizedtransforms. The generalized Walsh transform and generalized Hadamardtransform are interrelated i.e., one can be obtained from the other as in theoriginal Walsh and Hadamard transforms. In the generalized form Walshtransform and the Walsh Hadamard transform are different so far as the kernelcomposition is concerned as they are ordered differently. The generalized Walshkernel is asymmetric, whereas the generalized Hadamard kernel is symmetric.Pseudo Walsh kernel is symmetric but it cannot be generated in the way, Walshkernel is generated. Also Hadamard kernel can’t be obtained from it.In this paper we use capital letters as representing vectors or matrix and smallletters as elements of the vector or the matrix. And vectors are denoted by boldcapital letters. We organize the papers into four main sections. Section 2 gives thederivation of the generalized transforms. In section 2, we first discuss the existingWalsh And Hadamard Transform in the series form as it is written so in most of the literatures and the same will be formulated in the matrix form. Section 3 givesderivation of the generalized transforms of the Walsh and Hadamard transform aswell as the formulation of the new transform and a brief analysis of theicomputational complexity is also given. And Section 4 gives discussion andconclusion.2.
Existing Walsh and Hadamard transform
In Walsh transform and the Hadamard transform, an analogue term of frequencyknown as sequency is used. By sequency we generally mean the average number of zero crossing per unit time. With referred to a transform kernel of a specificsize, it refers to the number of change in sign in a particular sequence or the rowof the kernel. The size of a transform kernel is generally a power of 2. In other words, the signal to be transformed must be a length of power 2. In the originaltransform kernel all the elements are of 1 or –1. The minimum kernel in bothWalsh and Hadamard transform is a 2
×
2 symmetric matrix.
 
Walsh transform:
In Walsh’s case, we denote the minimum transform kernel by
11
. The upper suffix 1 is used to denote it a special or original Walsh kernel and the lower suffixdenotes the half of the kernel size.
=
1111
11
.The way of obtaining other higher size kernels is different in both cases. We willfirst give the way of obtaining Walsh’s other higher size kernels from the aboveminimum kernel. The next higher Walsh kernel is,i.e.,
=
1111 1111 1111 1111
12
Proceeding in this way, we can write
12
n
kernel in terms of the next lower kernel
1
n
as
=
)()( )()( )4()4( )4()4( )3()3( )3()3( )2()2( )2()2( )1()1( )1()1(
1111111111111111111112
nn nn
nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn
……………………(1)Here)(
1
n
denotes the r 
th
row of the
1
n
kernel.Alternative way of finding Walsh transform kernel, can be found in [11],[12],[4].Properties:1.The Walsh transformation kernel is symmetric, and orthogonal.2.Each row index or column index gives the sequency of the correspondingrow or the column in the kernel.3.The determinant of the minimum kernel is –2.4.And the determinant of any other higher kernel of size 2
n
×
2
n
is
1
2
)2(
n
n
 for n>1.

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