Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Found Object, Recycled Art, Readymade or Junk Art- Ambiguity in Modern African Art.pdf

Found Object, Recycled Art, Readymade or Junk Art- Ambiguity in Modern African Art.pdf

|Views: 1|Likes:
Published by Alexander Decker
International peer-reviewed academic journals call for papers, http://www.iiste.org
International peer-reviewed academic journals call for papers, http://www.iiste.org
International peer-reviewed academic journals call for papers, http://www.iiste.org
International peer-reviewed academic journals call for papers, http://www.iiste.org

More info:

Published by: Alexander Decker on Nov 02, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





Arts and Design Studies www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6061 (Paper) ISSN 2225-059 (!n"ine) #o".12$ 201%
Found Object, Recycled Art, Readymade or Junk Art? Ambiguity in Modern African Art
&"e'ent 'ea Apang S*+oo" o, Art and Design$ niersit/ o, ed,ords+ire$ 1 %$ uton nited 3ingdo'  -'ai" o, *orresponding aut+or *"e'entapang/a+oo.*o' 
7+e p+eno'enon o, ,ound o8e*ts and waste trans'utation into wors o, art$ do'inates *onte'porar/ A,ri*an art ostensi8"/ as t+e new *ontinenta" *reatie identit/. :aorit/ o, *onte'porar/ A,ri*an artists e;peri'ent wit+ waste as t+eir pre,erred artisti* 'ediu' and ,ind in t+e' (waste)$ potent 'etap+ors ,or *reatie e;pressionis'. <oweer$ a"t+oug+ t+is art ,or' is rapid"/ gaining pro'inen*e and internationa" a**"ai'$ it is surrounded 8/ e=uio*ations e'anating ,ro' aai"a8"e "iterature sour*es. Dis*ourses +ae e'erged w+i*+ atte'pts to t+eori>e t+is genre o, art 8ut su*+ dis*ourses +ae on"/ *reated ar/ing "ee"s o, a'8iguities w+i*+ i'pedes understanding o, its +istor/$ *on*eptua"it/ and *onte;t in *onte'porar/ art-spa*e. 7+is paper reiews re*ent "iterature dea"ing wit+ ,ound o8e*t appropriation in A,ri*a$ to e;pose t+e o8s*urities in+erent in su*+ studies. sing dis*ourse ana"/sis$ t+is reiew indi*ates t+e e;isten*e o, a'8iguities ranging ,ro' ter'ino"og/ deising and *"assi,i*ation to issues o, +ege'oni* e;*"usiit/ and pro8"e's o, *onte;tua"i>ation. !n t+e pre'ise o, t+ese e;isting gra/ areas$ I propose an in-dept+ stud/ into t+is 'odern A,ri*an art t/pe$ su*+ stud/ s+ou"d adopt a  parti*u"ari>ed s/ste' to inestigate t+e 'et+odo"og/ o, A,ri*an ,ound o8e*t art$ its ideo"og/ and *u"tura" 'otiation as 8asi* *riteria to ena8"e our understanding and esta8"is+ing o, t+is 'odern art ,or' as traditiona" to A,ri*a in ,or'$ *ontent and *onte;t and su8se=uent"/ di,,erentiate it ,ro' t+ose o, uropean art *onentions to w+i*+ it is *urrent"/ erroneous"/ "iened to.
?ound !8e*t$ @ead/'ade$ A'8iguit/$ un Art$ p*/*"ing$ Surrea"isti* !8e*t$ ri*o"age.
! "ntroduction
In*orporation o, 'ateria"s ,ro' pop *u"ture into A,ri*an isua" pra*ti*e 'a/ +ae e;isted sin*e t+e *ontinents en*ounter wit+ t+e west during s"ae trade and een ear"ier$ as eiden*ed in t+e use o, uropean spirit 8ott"es asse'8"ed to 8ui"d deities and s+rines (S+iner 1994). ut er/ "itt"e is ,ound in "iterature t+at proides an a**ount o, an/ in-dept+ inestigation into t+e +istoriograp+/ o, t+is A,ri*an art *onention. 7+is art genre (waste and ,ound o8e*ts appropriation) +as pro"i,erated a*ross t+e entire *ontinent and now do'inates *onte'porar/ art  pra*ti*e. As o8sered 8/ S/""a and erte"sen (199B)$ C,ound o8e*t art do'inates 'odern A,ri*an isua" pra*ti*e and er/ ,ew are t+ose w+o +ae not pra*ti*e ,ound o8e*t appropriation art in t+e *ontinent. Nu'erous reasons are responsi8"e ,or t+e ,ast propagation o, t+is art t/pe and su8se=uent adoption o, E
 *reatie 'et+odo"og/ 8/ A,ri*an artists$ 8ut t+e 'ost noti*ea8"e ,a*tor is g"o8a"isation (S+iner 1994$ S/""a F :erte"sen 199B). G+i"e t+roug+ 21
 *entur/ adan*es in te*+no"og/ and innoations t+e wor"d is 8e*o'ing a g"o8a" i""age$ it *onerse"/ "eads to in*reased *onsu'ption and a**o'pan/ing generation o, arieties o, waste. 7+ese waste and ,ound 'ateria"s o**asioned 8/ 'odernit/$ 8e*o'e 'ateria"s ,or artisti* use (3art 2009). :odern waste (t+e 8/e produ*ts o, 'odernit/ and *ii"isation) are e'p"o/ed 8/ A,ri*ans as e,,e*tie isua" 'etap+ors ,or *reatie e;p"orations and e;pressionis'. 7+is inter*onne*tiit/ 8etween g"o8a"isation$ 'odernit/ and waste generation$ a**o'panied 8/ te*+no"ogi*a" adan*e'ents in *onte'porar/ A,ri*a$ resu"ts in waste uni=ue"/ adapted into art to a +ig+ "ee" it +as een 8een argued t+at$ dis*arded o8e*ts in*orporation into art originated ,ro' A,ri*a. ans (2010$ p.1) posited t+at$ Ct+roug+ ,ound o8e*t trans,or'ation$ A,ri*an artists +ae *reated a tru"/ uni=ue art ,or' and +ae 8e=ueat+ed a new art *onte;t to t+e wor"d. @easons 8eing t+at$ ,or 'an/ *onte'porar/ A,ri*an artists trained in western art edu*ation s/ste's and e=uipped wit+ su*+ artisti* *on*eptua"is'$ interrogating t+e ri*+ 'eanings "o*ed in waste and ,ound o8e*ts is *onsidered =uintessentia" ,or artisti* se", e;pressionis' and *reation o, +eig+ten 'u"ti,arious "a/ers o, 'eanings sin*e a**ording to Aniaor (201%)$ Ci'ages and o8e*ts are p"aited wit+ 'eanings and on"/ 8/ interrogating t+e'$ t+at now"edge is e;tended and *ertain 'essages and ideo"ogies e;pressed. 7+us$ su*+ artists tai"or t+eir *reatie e;peri'entations towards a*+ieing artisti* se", e;pressionis' and +ig+er *odi,ied 'eanings. 7+is is 8e*ause as o8sered 8/ !.&onnor$ ,ound o8e*t artwors are 8e"ieed to 8e enri*+ed wit+ super"atie dou8"e ,"uidit/ o, 'eaning (!p *it 201%). It is per+aps a*+ieing t+at ,"uidit/ o, 'eaning w+i*+ +as drien 'odern A,ri*an artists to position t+e'se"es as 'ateria" e;peri'enta"ist to *reatie"/ interrogate waste and ,ound o8e*ts$ e;p"oring t+eir artisti* =ua"ities and 'eanings$ as we"" as using su*+ wors to re,"e*t so*ieta" *ir*u'stan*es and issues in *onte'porar/ A,ri*a$ as t+e 8asis ,or t+eir art. 7+e/ do so 8e*ause$ a**ording to ?ontaine (2010$ p5H)$ C8/ engaging wit+ read/-'ades ,ro' pop *u"ture$ t+e artist 8e*o'es an agen*/ t+roug+ w+i*+ t+e in+erent 8eaut/ and art =ua"ities trapped in ,oundwaste 'ateria"s are 8roug+t to "i'e "ig+t ia trans'utation. ?ro' an A,ri*an
Arts and Design Studies www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6061 (Paper) ISSN 2225-059 (!n"ine) #o".12$ 201%
42 trae*tor/$ not ust t+e 8eaut/ in waste is *onsidered 8ut t+e *ir*u'stan*es *reating t+ese waste (g"o8a"isation$ 'odernit/ and *onsu'ption) ,or's t+e ideo"ogi*a"*on*eptua" ,ra'ewor ,or waste trans,or'ation into new art *onentions. G+i"st t+is genre o, art is gaining pro'inen*e and widespread internationa" re*ognition$ it +as stirred up s*+o"ar"/ interest ,ro' 8ot+ A,ri*anwestern art +istorians and *riti*s. Aai"a8"e "iterature wit+ regards to t+is *onte'porar/ A,ri*an art ,or'$ *onsist o, nu'erous a'8iguities w+i*+ i'pedes understanding o, its *onte;tua" artisti* e;isten*e. Su*+ "iteratures +ae sprang up in t+e 21
 *entur/ 8/ s*+o"ars JA,ri*an and westernK w+o$ ignoring t+e +istoriograp+/ o, t+is A,ri*an art ,or'$ on"/ pro8"e'ati*a""/ treat ,ound o8e*t trans'utation into art in A,ri*a as a re*ent artisti* endeaour. A "ot o, +ast/ genera"isations and *on,used *onte;tua"i>ations e;ist$  pointing to t+e ,a*t t+at no in-dept+ resear*+ +as 8een *ondu*ted to proide *"arit/ to e;isting gaps in t+is 8od/ o, now"edge. So'e s*+o"ars +ae strugg"ed wit+ deising a ru8ri* ,or t+is art ,or' t+at wi"" de,ine and *ategorise it as A,ri*an. !t+ers +ae adopted w+at 'a/ 8e *onsidered a pro8"e'ati* dis*ourse o, "iening t+is art ,or' in para""e" 'orp+o"ogi*a" and ideo"ogi*a" ter's wit+ uropean
 Dadaism, Surrealism
 Found Object Art,
 indi*ating t+e e;tent to w+i*+ s*+o"ars +ae grapp"ed wit+ t+is su8e*t. 7+e ru8ri*
‘Recycling in Contemporary African Art’ 
 +as 8een pro8"e'ati*a""/ adopted 8/ s*+o"ars to +o"isti*a""/ des*ri8e t+is A,ri*an art ,or' in t+e past two de*ades$ a ru8ri* w+i*+ inder (200B) argues t+at is C'is"eading. inders iew point is supported 8/ #an-D/ w+o o8sered t+at CA "ot o, artists +ae 'ade art out o, ,ound 'ateria"s 8e,ore t+e word Ere*/*"e was een nown in our so*iet/... t+e ter' @e*/*"ing in A,ri*an Art t+ere,ore is a 'is*on*eption (#an-D/$ 201%. P2). 7+is paper reiews re*ent arti*"es and *ata"ogues w+i*+ dea"s wit+ waste trans'utation into art$ in order to reea" t+e a'8iguities surrounding t+is 'odern art genre in A,ri*a$ it goes ,urt+er to posit t+at ,or proper understanding to 8e attained$ an in-dept+ resear*+ into ,ound o8e*t art is e;igent. Proiding so"utions to t+ese e;isting gaps is 8e/ond t+e s*ope o, t+is paper$ +oweer$ in t+e *ourse o, t+is dis*ourse$ insig+ts wi"" 8e  proided into wa/s t+roug+ w+i*+ studies *an 8e e,,e*tie"/ dire*ted using *u"tura" perspe*tia"is' o,  parti*u"arised 'et+odo"ogi*a" inestigation w+i*+ wi"" ena8"e t+e possi8"e esta8"is+ing o, t+is *onte'porar/ art *onention as A,ri*an in ,or'$ *ontent$ and *onte;t and$ distinguis+ it ,ro' t+ose o, western art *u"ture.
#! Articles, $ubmissions and %ray Areas on waste
into contem&orary Africa art:
 ?our "iterature sour*es (t+ree papers and a 8oo) are reiewed in t+is se*tion to 8ring to "i'e "ig+t gra/ areas and gaps in t+e 8od/ o, now"edge wit+ regards to ,ound o8e*t appropriation in *onte'porar/ A,ri*an art.
2.1 Globalizing East African Culture: From un! to ua "ali Art.
'y Margaretta $wigert(%ac)eru #*
 Swigert-La*+erus paper ,o*uses on waste trans,or'ation into art pra*ti*ed in ast A,ri*a$ using 3en/a as *ase stud/. 7+e 'ain idea ,ro' an e*ono'i* and innoatie iew point purported 8/ t+e aut+or is t+at$
 Jua ali
 Ingenuit/ w+i*+ *u"'inates into 3en/an un Art is a *onte'porar/ ast A,ri*an renaissan*e 'oe'ent w+i*+ not on"/ de,ines a uni=ue genre o, art$ 8ut *ontri8utes to 8oosting t+e e*ono'/ t+roug+ its 8ri*o"age produ*tiit/. A"so$ t+e aut+or pointed out t+at
 Jua ali
 is t+e 'ost d/na'i* *onte'porar/ art ,or' in 3en/a w+i*+ e;ists as a +eig+ten "ee" o, *reatie ingenuit/ inspired 8/ t+e presen*e o, g"o8a" wastet+row-awa/ and poert/ (Swigert-La*+eru 2011. P129). S+e ,urt+er o8sered t+at$ 8/ irtue o, its appropriation o, g"o8a" waste$ ua 3a"i un Art  8ridges t+e gap 8etween A,ri*an and western art wor"ds 8/ *reating a g"o8a" ,"ow t+roug+ su*+ +/8ridi>ation w+i*+ in turn de,ies t+e '/t+ o, tri8a" art and pri'itie order (Swigert-La*+eru 2011. P12H). Anot+er su8'ission 'ade 8/ t+e aut+or is t+at$ t+roug+ *reatie resus*itation o, dis*arded 'ateria"s deposited in ast A,ri*a ,ro' urope$
 Jua ali Jun! Art 
 *o'8ines 'aes+i,t *reatiit/ wit+ entrepreneurs+ip as a strateg/ ,or suria" (Swigert-La*+eru 2011. P129). 7+us$ poert/ is *ited as t+e 'otiation ,or t+e innoation o, ua 3a"i un Art in 3en/a$ w+i"st arious artists inspired 8/ e*ono'i* +ards+ip are "isted. A"t+oug+ Swigert-La*+eru presents eiden*e o, +ow 'aes+i,t *reatiit/ in t+e arts *an 8oost t+e e*ono'/ o,  8ot+ t+e artists and t+e nation$ and a"so 8roug+t to "i'e "ig+t t+e ,a*t t+at t+is ingenuit/ in ast A,ri*a was re"egated to t+e 8a*ground 8e,ore now 8/ s*+o"ars$ t+e aut+ors *"assi,i*ation o, w+at *onstitutes un and de8ris is er/ *on,using and espe*ia""/ pro8"e'ati* 8e*ause t+is *"assi,i*ation is t+e proiso ,or +er du88ing o, t+is art ,or' as
 Jun! Art 
. 7+e aut+or stated t+at
 Jun! Art 
 is 'ade ,ro' e"e*troni* gar8age and ,ound natura" o8e*ts$ w+i"e eniron'enta" de8ris and o"d *"ot+es are used in insta""ation (Swigert-La*+eru 2011$ p. 1%1). 7+is *"assi,i*ation 8rings a8out arious unanswered =uestions w+i*+ su8ert t+is genre o, *onte'porar/ A,ri*an art. ?or instan*e$ *an a"" art 'ade ,ro' un in A,ri*a 8e *"assi,ied as un ArtM <ow does natura" ,ound o8e*t "ie stones$ sea s+e""s et* w+i*+ are not e"e*troni* gar8age usti,/ t+eir in*"usion in t+e *ategorisation un ArtM !r$ does t+e in*"usion o, dis*arded 'ateria"s into an artwor in t+is *ase as t+e aut+or enu'erated (o"d *"ot+es and eniron'enta" de8ris)$ auto'ati*a""/ trans,or' su*+ wors into insta""ation artM Is dis*arded 'ateria"
 into art$ t+e-sa'e as insta""ation artM / using 'edia as t+e *riterion ,or deising t+e ru8ri*
‘Jua ali Jun! Art’,
one wi"" assu'e t+at a"" artwors in ast A,ri*a or A,ri*a at "arge 'ade ,ro' ,ound$ dis*arded or read/'ade
Arts and Design Studies www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-6061 (Paper) ISSN 2225-059 (!n"ine) #o".12$ 201%
4% o8e*ts wi"" idea""/ ,a"" into t+is *ategor/ (un art) 8ut t+is isnt t+e *ase. &aste""ote (2011) o8sered t+at !"u A'oda uses dis*arded 'ateria"s and un w+i*+ +e pre,ers to *a""
‘Re#$urpose %aterials’,
and t+at +is art 8e "ooed at as E
 Repurpose %aterial Art’ 
. !ne o8seres t+at$ !"u A'oda and ot+er A,ri*an artists een t+oug+ 'ae use o, un$ deise di,,erent na'es ,or t+eir waste 'ateria"s and re,use t+at t+eir artwors 8e *a""ed un art. 7+is is w+/ Swigert-La*+erus adoption o, t+e ter' un art to genera"ise ,ound o8e*ts trans'utations in 3en/a is pro8"e'ati* 8e*ause ot+er waste appropriation artists in 3en/a +ae di,,erent na'es ,or t+eir waste 'ateria"s. ?urt+er'ore$ 8/ using nu'erous na'es ,or waste 'ateria"s$ deised 8/ di,,erent artists as t+e 'ain trust or generi* 'ode o, inestigation to e;p"ore and interrogate t+is genre o, A,ri*an art$ su*+ "ine o, en=uir/ as adopted 8/ Swigert-La*+eru and ot+er s*+o"ars +as on"/ "ead to di,,erent *on,used *"assi,i*ations. 7wo issues stand out ,ro' Swigert-La*+erus stud/. ?irst"/$ t+e ,a*t t+at t+e *ategorisation o, w+at *onstitutes waste and w+at ,a""s into t+e t/po"og/ de8ris is pro8"e'ati* 'eans t+e ter'ino"og/ adopted ,or t+is art ,or' is e=ua""/ pro8"e'ati*. ?ro' t+e aut+ors su8'issions$ it i'p"ies t+at natura" o8e*ts$ o"d *"ot+es or eniron'enta" de8ris are e;*"uded ,ro' t+e t/po"og/
 Jun! art 
 and 8/ irtue o, t+eir waste *o'position$ +ae 8e*o'e insta""ation art. A"so$ *"assi,/ing e"e*troni* gar8age as t+e 'ateria" used ,or 'aing
 Jun! Art,
 'eans t+e/ *ant  8e used in insta""ation art 8/ t+e aut+ors su8'ission w+i*+ 'aes +er proposition er/ *on,using. Se*ond"/ t+e aut+ors pro8"e'ati* waste *ategorisation *u"'inates in an ina8i"it/ to di,,erentiate un art ,ro' Insta""ation art. Ge are t+us "e,t wit+ a ru8ri* (un Art)$ w+i*+ doesnt een en*o'pass a"" o, 3en/as ,ound o8e*t appropriation$ neit+er does it$ re,"e*t or en*o'pass ,ound o8e*t trans'utation pra*ti*ed e"sew+ere in ast A,ri*a$ nor t+e entire A,ri*an *ontinent$ and su8'issions w+i*+ "eaes us unaware o, t+e 8oundaries 8etween t+is art (un Art) and Insta""ation Art. 7+ese unanswered =uestions and issues stated a8oe$ indi*ates t+e presen*e o, 'ore t+an a 'odi*u' o, gra/ areas and un*ertainties in Swigert-La*+erus paper.
2.2 #imbab$e: %&e 'ost an( Foun( Art.
'y Knowledge Mus)o)we #*#
7+is arti*"e proides perip+era" insig+ts into *onte'porar/ A,ri*an ,ound o8e*t appropriation and possesses a**o'pan/ing o8s*urities. 7+e 'ain purport o, t+e arti*"e is t+e 8randing o, art t+at uti"i>es aai"a8"e waste or read/-'ades as E?ound !8e*t Art$ wit+ t+e aut+or positing t+at i'8a8wean artists use ,ound o8e*t art as a wa/ o, ,inding 'eaning in t+ras+ to *o''uni*ate en*oded 'essages. !ne 'aor assertion 'ade 8/ t+e aut+or is t+at$ ,ound o8e*t wors o, art are super"atie to t+e 'ore 'undane ,or's o, s*u"ptures w+i*+ are t+e o"d *onentions. Arguing t+at$ t+e pun*tuated *oding s/ste' wit+in ,ound o8e*t art gies su*+ s*u"ptures a *onte'p"atie *+a""enging =ua"it/ w+i*+ is an edge oer traditiona" ,or's o, s*u"pture (:us+o+we$ 2012. P1). 7+at additie aest+eti* edge is 8orn out o, t+e *o'p"e; *reatie pro*ess w+i*+ t+e aut+or des*ri8e as E
Organised &andalism’,
a pro*ess w+i*+ ino"es disp"a*ing o"d 'eanings and ,or's o, o8e*ts to *reate and a**ord t+e' new ,or's and 'eanings (:us+o+we$ 2012. P1). G+i"st pointing to t+e ,a*t t+at$ ,ound o8e*t art ino"es re-*onte;tua"isation o, o8e*ts 8/ dis"o*ating t+e' ,ro' t+eir origina" *onte;t and "o*ating t+e' in +ig+er rea"'s o, artisti* e;isten*e$ t+e aut+or e=ua""/ draws ones attention to t+e ,a*t t+at its anda"ising nature *onstitutes a *ause ,or *on*ern as *riti*s =uestion t+e "ega"it/ o, su*+ pra*ti*e. :ost noti*ea8"/ and a'8iguous"/ so too$ is t+e ,a*t t+at t+e aut+or des*ri8es and asso*iates ,ound o8e*t art in A,ri*a to t+ose o, western re8e""ious art 'oe'ents. <e stated t+at$ Ct+e re8e" nature o, t+is ,ound o8e*t art is tra*ed to Dadais' and its prin*ipa" e;ponent is :ar*e" Du*+a'p (:us+o+we$ 2012. p2). Su*+ a 8o"d assertion +oweer$ is not proen wit+ ade=uate ,a*ts w+i*+ 'ae it *on,using and pro8"e'ati* as wi"" 8e enun*iated in t+e ne;t  paragrap+. A"t+oug+ t+is paper proides so'e new insig+ts into t+is genre o, *onte'porar/ A,ri*an s*u"pture$ espe*ia""/ 8/  8randing it
‘Found Object Art’ 
 and esta8"is+ing t+e ,a*t t+at$ 8e*ause t+is art ,or' dis"o*ates dis*arded o8e*ts ,ro' t+eir origina" *onte;t to a new *reatie rea"'$ it assu'es *onte'p"atie*+a""enging =ua"ities w+i*+ a**ord t+e' aest+eti**reatie edge oer traditiona" ,or's o, s*u"pture su*+ as 'ode""ed statues$ *arings et*$ t+e arti*"e notwit+standing$ *onstitutes ,urt+er a'8iguities and raises arious =uestions. 7+e aut+ors "iening o, t+is A,ri*an art *onention to
 and purporting t+at :ar*e" Du*+a'p is t+e ,ounder o, Dadais' is s+rouded in o8s*urities wit+out su,,i*ient s*+o"ar"/ eiden*e to support su*+ *"ai's. ?irst"/$ in as 'u*+ as Du*+a'p$ @i*a8a and :an @a/ started anti art in A'eri*a$ Du*+a'p is not t+e ,ounder o, Dadais'. Dadais' 8egan in uri*+ wit+ artist "ie 7ristan 7>ara$ :ar*e" an*o$ ean Arp$ et* *redited ,or ste''ing t+e pro*ess t+at "ead to Dadais' (<ans 1965$ we : 19H9$ Sand=ist 2006). <oweer$ Du*+a'p a pioneer 'e'8er o, anti-art in A'eri*a originated t+e E@ead/'ade w+i*+ aries ,ro' Dadaist Surrea"isti* o8e*ts in arious respe*ts. 7+ere,ore$ +is "ining o, Du*+a'ps
 Found Object
in sa'e *ategor/ is pro8"e'ati*. 7+is is 8e*ause$ +e i'p"ies 8/ su*+ proposition t+at Du*+a'ps @ead/'ade and Surrea"ist ,ound o8e*ts are sa'e art t/pes w+i*+ ,ro' "itera""/ eiden*e is not t+e *ase. Du*+a'ps @ead/'ade a *on*eptua" art st/"e arrie at t+roug+ +is disinterested art ideo"og/ and e;peri'entation wit+ +is E
Creati'e Order and 
Jaest+eti*s o, indi,,eren*eK
e'p+asises t+e inte""e*tua"*on*eptua" *ontent o, an artwor oer its isua" ,or'$ to =uestion w+at de,ines*onstitute art and t+e entire art institution. ?urt+er'ore$ su*+
 were una"tered 8/ t+e artist and on"/ assu'ed t+e dignit/ o, art t+roug+
‘Dislocated Conte*tual Description’ 
 (@ead 19B5$ !8a" 2000$

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->