Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Gracilaria sp. Waste, Lactobacillus sp. and Chlorella sp. Integration on Intensive Aquaculture with Aquaponic System.pdf

Gracilaria sp. Waste, Lactobacillus sp. and Chlorella sp. Integration on Intensive Aquaculture with Aquaponic System.pdf

Ratings: (0)|Views: 0 |Likes:
Published by Alexander Decker
International peer-reviewed academic journals call for papers, http://www.iiste.org
International peer-reviewed academic journals call for papers, http://www.iiste.org

More info:

Published by: Alexander Decker on Nov 02, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/02/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paer! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline! &ol.3' No.11' 2#13
66
Gracilaria
 sp. Waste,
 Lactobacillus
 sp. and
 Chlorella
 sp. Integration on Intensive Aquaculture with Aquaponic System
 
och.)*in )la*s+ah ,acult of ,isheries an arine' /ni0ersitas)irlangga' a*us  /N)IR Jl. ulore+o Suraaa' Inonesia -*ail of the corresoning author ala*s+ah5f.unair.ac.i 7 ala*s+ah9#5ahoo.co*
Abstract
:he ai* of the research is to e;lore the utili<ation of
Gracilaria
 s. waste'
 Lactobacillus
 s. an
 Chlorella
 s. in intensi0e a=uaculture with a=uaonic sste*. Interestingl' fer*ente
Gracilaria
 s. waste li=ui as *uch as #."> gi0es the est watercress
(Ipomoea aquatica)
 growth (leaf length' leaf with' ste* length' root length' an nu*er of lea0es! an nile fish
(Oreochromis niloticus)
 growth (secific growth rate an asolute growth in the  o length!.
Keywords:
?racilaria s. waste' @actoacillus s.' hlorella s.' a=uaonic
1. Introduction
Seawee as an alternati0e culti0ation acti0it other than fishing has een *ostl one  Inonesian fisher*en this ti*e' although the roucts are still in the for* of rie seawee
(raw material).
Ilnur A iri (2##4! state that the enefits of seawee are not onl as foo. Its utili<ation as har*aceutical ingreient an inustrial raw *aterials also nee to e e;lore further. Inonesian rie seawee rouction since 2#1# which is as *uch as 8##'### tons B ear contriute "#> to the worl rouction' of which 8"> is e;orte. C the i*orters' the seawee is then rocesse into foo inustrial *aterials as well as health an cos*etics roucts. Inonesia has 34 seawee rocessing inustries where the seawee is rocesse into gelatin' alginate an carrageenan. Dowe0er' the use of seawee waste as a useful rouct has not een the focus of attention. Easte generate is usuall onl allowe to accu*ulate in the lanfill. )lthough it is har*less' the waste u* coul otentiall cause ollution role*s' eseciall if the lanfill is no longer ale to acco**oate waste rouction. :he eculiar feature of seawee as fertili<er is that it is rich of lant growth regulators (P?R! such as au;in' ctoinins an gierellin. Not onl increasing rouction' P?R also increases lant resistance to rought an insects. P?R in seawee are aunant in ste* (thallus! such as in
 Kappaphycus
 s.'
Sargassum
 s. an
Gracilaria
 s. ,ertili<er *ae fro* seawee waste has *ore 0alue in for* of *acro-nutrients ele*ents such as nitrogen (N!' hoshorus (P!' otassiu* (F!' an in the for* of *icro-nutrients ele*ents such as ,e' C' a' u' n an g which are e;ecte to *eet the nees of the lant. )s a source of nutrition' seawee has a fairl co*lete nutrition. he*icall' seawee is co*ose of water (29.8>!' rotein (".4>!' carohrate (33.3>!' fat (8.6>!' crue fier (3>! an ash (22.2">!. In aition to carohrate' rotein' fat an fier' seawee also contains en<*es' nucleic aci' a*ino aci' 0ita*ins ()' C' ' G'  an F!. )*ino aci' 0ita*ins an *inerals in seawee reach 1#-2# ti*es *ore than in the lan lants. Not onl e use for foo an har*aceutical *aterials' seawee can also e use as fertili<er or iofertili<er (@o0ell 1$8$! which are useful to sur growth an increase lant rouction. :he use of seawee as a raw *aterial of organic fertili<er in Inonesia has not een e;lore et although the rouction otential is consierale an Inonesia is rich in seawee 0ariet which is esti*ate at """ secies ()nggaire+a
et al 
. 2##6! such as
 Kappaphycus
 s.'
Sargassum
 s. an
Gracilaria
 s. Preli*inar stu also re0eals that the content of nitrogen in seawee 1.##>' hoshorus #.#">' otassiu* 1#.##>' calciu* 1.2#>' *agnesiu* #.8#>' sulhur 3.9#>' cooer " *' iron 12## *' *anganese 12 *' <inc 1## *' oron 8# *' organic co*ouns "#-"">' an ash content 4"-"#>. :he co*ination of the relati0el co*le; nutrients is 0er ossile to e use as acteria enrich*ent *eia an  roiotic techni=ues. Sute+o (2##2! states that fertili<ation for the lants that li0e in the waters is still rare. )=uatic lants lanting *eia co*ine with fish an e0en shri* intensi0e culti0ation in a single culti0ation container is nown as a=uaonic sste*. :he asic core of the a=uaonic sste* is the oti*u* water sul for each co**oit  utili<ing recirculation sste*. :his a=uaonic technolog sste* aears as the answer to the role*s regaring the ifficult in fining a suitale water source for a=uaculture' articularl in li*ite sace (Nugroho A Sutrisno 2##8!. :hrough the a=uaonic technolog snergi<e in intensi0e a=uaculture an a=uatic lants culti0ation as well as seawee waste utili<ation an acterial fer*entation technolog' it is e;ecte to otain a technolog acage that is eas to al' ine;ensi0e' en0iron*entall frienl an ha0e a *ore oti*al ae 0alue' oth in the growth of fish an a=uatic lants culti0ate.
. !aterials and !ethods
 :he research conucte is a ilot of fer*entation technolog in orer to rouce roiotic enrich*ent *eia an
 
Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paer! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline! &ol.3' No.11' 2#13
69 organic li=ui fertili<er with reference to the results of the growth rate of fish an a=uatic lants' ientification of tes an a*ount of roiotic acteria' N an P utae an its correlation with water =ualit ara*eters an ichtoto;icit analsis on a=uaonic sste*. :his research uses e;eri*ental *etho. ;eri*ental esign use is a co*letel rano*i<e esign (RG! with fi0e treat*ents an four relications' na*el ) ontrol' C :reat*ent with fer*ente seawee har0est waste li=ui as *uch as #.2">'  :reat*ent with fer*ente seawee har0est waste li=ui as *uch as #.">' G :reat*ent with fer*ente seawee har0est waste li=ui as *uch as #.9">7  :reat*ent with fer*ente seawee har0est waste li=ui as *uch as 1>.
2. !reparing "esearch #quipment
=ui*ent use in the stu are washe with etergent an rinse with clean water' then washe again with 12  * of chlorine' then washe with clean water an rie in the sun. ach container is lace on a shelf where the osition is in accorance with the stu esign.
2.2 !reparing Seawee$ 
 
 Kappaphycus
 s.'
Sargassum
 s. an
Gracilaria
 s. use are the waste of seawee har0est fro* a=uaculture  ons or seawee *anufacturer. :hen' the rocess of *aing fertili<er is unertaen  cutting the seawee into s*all ieces an eressing the* in orer to tae the +uice. :hen' the seawee waste li=ui is anal<e in the laorator to eter*ine the concentration le0els of N an P. Geter*ination of N-:otal is erfor*e through se*i *oifie *icro-F+elahl' i.e.  weighing 1# *@ of solution an utting it into a 1## *@ *easuring flas an iluting it with istille water to the li*it. 1# *@ of the solution for*e is taen an ut into a "## *@ F+elahl flas an ae with 1# *l of D
2
S%
4
($3-$8> N-free!. " g of a *i;ture of Na
2
S%
4
-Dg% (2#1! is also ae for a catalst. :he sa*le then is oile until it is clear an the oiling rocess is continue for 3# *in. )fter the sa*le is cool' the rocess is followe  washing the walls in the F+elahl flas using istille water an oiling it again for 3# *in. %nce it is cool' 14# *@ of istille water is ae as well as 3" *@ of a solution of Na%D-Na
2
S
2
%
3
an <inc granules. :he rocess is followe  istillation in which 1## *@ of istillate is collecte in an rlen*eer containing 2" *@ of a saturate solution of oric aci an a few ros of lue *ethlene inicators. In the ne;t ste' the solution otaine is titrate with #.#2 Dl an the N total of the sa*le is calculate. N :otal *g B *@ H (*@ Dl ; N Dl! B *@ of sa*le solution ; 14.##8 ; f7 where f is the ilution factor. Geter*ination of P is carrie out  weighing 2 g of sa*le an utting it into a eaer an aing 9." *@ of g-nitrate solution. :he solution is then heate on to of an electric heater at 18#
K
 until it eco*es thic. :hen' the sa*le is *o0e into a *uffle at 3##
K
 until no lac resiue. ,urther*ore' the sa*le is chille an ae with 1" *@ of concentrate Dl an ilute with istille water. :he sa*le is then *o0e into a 2"#*@ *easuring flas an ilute to the li*it. :he ne;t ste is taing 1## *@ of the sa*le solution resulte an *o0ing it into a 2"# *@ eaer. oncentrate ND
4
%D is ae to the sa*le until sei*ent is resulte an then the sa*le is issol0e again  aing concentrate DN%
3
 until the solution turns clear. :he rocess is followe  aing 1" g of a**oniu*-nitrate to the sa*le an heating it using a water heater until the te*erature reaches 6"
K
 an aing 9# *l of *olate solution an settling it for 6# *in. :he ne;t ste is e;a*ining the sei*entation  taing " *@ of suernatant an aing " *@ of *olate solution. It is then stirre until no *ore sei*ent for*e. )s the sei*entation is co*lete' it is necessar to filter out an wash it with istille water. ,urther*ore the sei*ent is resol0e using filter aer with the aition of ND
4
%D (11! an hot water until the filter aer eco*es clean. :he 0olu*e of filtrate an the rouct of recent washing shoul not e *ore than 1## *@. :he filtrate an the rouct of recent washing with concentrate Dl are then neutrali<e an it is then settle an ae with 1" *@ of *agnesia *i;ture fro* the urette with a see of 1 ro er secon while shaing it. )fter eing settle for 1" *in' 12 *@ of concentrate ND
4
%D is ae an then it is settle for 2 h. Suernatant is then oure through ash-free filter aer an the sei*ent is washe in the eaer with ilute a**onia until it is chlorie free. :he ne;t ste is ring the sei*entation an filter aer in a crucile which has een turne on to otain a white resiue. It is then chille in e;cator. :he resiue is then weighe as g
2
P
2
%
9.
 Eeight of P
2
%
"
is calculate  the for*ula of the weight of P
2
%
"
(g in 1## *@ of solution! H #.6399 ; weight of g
2
P
2
%
9
 (g!.
2.% &ermente$ Seawee$ 'aste echnology
,lui resulte fro* the rocess of rearing seawee is fer*ente using culture o*inate  fer*entation  acteria
 Lactobacillus
 s. ,er*entation is the con0ersion of organic *atter into another for* with the hel of *icroe (Juoa*i+oo 2##3!. icroe erfor*s fer*entation  con0erting co*le; organic *aterials into si*ler organic *aterials. Case on the results of the reli*inar test' the co*osition of acteria is
 Lactobacillus
 8.9 ;1#
"
,/B*@. :his rocess egins  erfor*ing the waste of
Sargassum
 s.'
 Kappaphycus
 s. an
Gracilaria
 s. in a*ount of "## g each with a solution of fer*entation acteria
 Lactobacillus
 s. as *uch as " *@ an then stirre e0enl. :he li=ui is then ut into a seale container an fer*ente for 1 wee. :his is in accorance with the oinion of Incle
et al.
 (2##"! who e;lains that the fer*entation erio is  etween one to two wees. ,er*entation erio is a+uste to the esire treat*ent. @aorator analsis is
 
Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3186 (Paer! ISSN 222"-#$21 (%nline! &ol.3' No.11' 2#13
68  erfor*e after the fer*entation rocess to eter*ine le0els of N an P.
2. *quaponic System !lanting +e$ia
Planting *eia use in this stu is co*ine with intensi0e a=uaculture with a=uaonic sste* (:hi*en
et al.
 2##"7 Fohar
et al 
. 2##4!. ,ertili<er *ae fro* seawee li=ui waste resulte fro* the fer*entation is ut in each reser0oir (#> concentration or control7 #.2">7 #.">7 #.9"> an 1>!.
2., -ile &ish (Oreochromis niloticus) iomass 'eight Calculation
Cio*ass is the total weight of a oulation at a certain erio an is e;resse in weight unit (?ieon
et al.
2##9!. Nile fish
(Oreochromis niloticus)
is *easure regaring its o length an o weight an then lace in an a=uariu* with a ensit of intensi0e nile fish a=uaculture. :he fish is accli*ati<e an not fe for two as  efore gi0en treat*ent. :he fee to e use in this stu is co**ercial fee. :he a*ount of fee for each treat*ent is as *uch as 3> of the a0erage o weight of fish weighe using analtical alance (SNI #1-6141-1$$$!.
2./ !reparing *quatic !lants
 :he *etho alie refers to reco**enation of Prasa
et al.
 (2##8! with *oifications. )=uatic lants use are local an )*enan fro* @o*o (Eest Nusa :enggara! watercress with 2" c* ste* length an 1 c* shoots which then lace in a container that ha een reare. Ne;t' the reser0oir containing fer*entation rouct will flow accoring to the force of gra0it towars the a=uariu* elow. :he water flow is then u*e towars the reser0oir. Recirculation of the water flow will rotate until the stu ens. )t the en of the stu' the length an with of lea0es' ste*s' roots' nu*er of lea0es an the o length an o weight of the fish as well as the changes that occur are *easure.
2.0 &ish Sur1i1al "ate
 Sur0i0al rate is the ercentage of fish that li0e in a culti0ation erio (Suanto 2##2!. ffenie (1$$9! states that fish sur0i0al rate can e calculate  the for*ula SR H Nt B No ; 1##> Gescrition SR sur0i0al rate (>!7 Nt Nu*er of fish at the en of the test7 No. Nu*er of fish at the  eginning of the test
2. -ile &ish3s o$y 'eight an$ *bsolute Length Growth
 easuring growth incluing o weight growth (E! an total length growth (:@! is erfor*e once e0er 9 as fro* the eginning to the en of the stu. )ccoring to )ni (1$8$!' the secific weight growth is the calculation of the ifference of final weight an the initial weight i0ie  erio of culti0ation *ultilie  1##>. ,ish ail weight growth can e calculate using the following for*ula Secific ?rowth Rate (S?R! S?R H (lnEt L lnEo! ; 1##> t Gescrition Et )0erage weight at certain ti*e -t (g!7 Eo )0erage weight at the eginning (t
#
! (g!' t Perio of culti0ation (as!
2.4 -ile &ish *bsolute Length Growth
)ccoring to )ni (1$8$!' asolute length growth is the ifference of nile fish o length at the eginning an the en of the culti0ation. ,ish asolute length growth can e calculate using the following for*ula @* H :@
1
 - : @o Gescrition :@
1
 total length at the en of culti0ation (c*!' :@
#
 total length at the eginning of culti0ation (c*!7 @* asolute length growth (c*!
2.5 *quatic !lant Growth
 ?rowth is associate with changes in nu*er' si<e or cells le0el i*ension' organ as well as ini0iual that can  e *easure  the *easure*ent of weight an length (Diaat 1$8"!. @eaf length is *easure weel  in0erting leaf then *easuring its length fro* the *eia to surface to the longest leaf using a ruler. @eaf with is *easure weel using a ruler to *easure fro* the *eia to surface to the otto* surface. :he ste* length is *easure weel using a ruler to *easure fro* the *eia to surface to the otto* surface. Ste* length growth can e calculate using the following for*ula ste* asolute growth H final ste* lengthLinitial ste* length. Root length is *easure weel using a ruler to *easure fro* the *eia to surface to the otto* surface. Root length growth can e calculate using the following for*ula Root asolute growth H final root lengthLinitial root length.
2. I$enti6ying the ype an$ -umber o6 !robiotic acteria
 Proiotic acterial isolates in culture on gelatin ?MP (?lucose-Meast e;tract-Petone! isolation *eia with the co*osition of 1# g of glucose' 1# g of east e;tract' " g of etone' 2 g of eef e;tract' 1.4 g of Na-asetat.3D
2
%' " *@ of salt solution (#.1 g of gS%
4
.9D
2
%' #.1 g of NS%
4
.4D
2
%' #.1 g of ,eS%
4
 .9D
2
%7 #.1 g of Nal7 "# *@ of istille water!' #." g of tween 8#' 2# g of gelatin' 1 @ of water. %nce it is sterili<e' #.9" *g of a%
3
B*@ of *eia is ae. :he selection of
 Lactobacillus
 s. is erfor*e  anal<ing its a*ount

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->