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Collected Research into the adverse effects of WiFI

Collected Research into the adverse effects of WiFI

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Published by Shakespeare3
Collection of Scientific Research showing adverse health effects and detrimental effects to the mind from WIFI.
Collection of Scientific Research showing adverse health effects and detrimental effects to the mind from WIFI.

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Published by: Shakespeare3 on Nov 02, 2013
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Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes of radiofrequency waves emitted from conventionalWi-Fi devices
Halil I. Atasoy
a,
*, Mehmet Y. Gunal
b
, Pinar Atasoy
c
, Serenay Elgun
d
,Guler Bugdayci
e
a
Departments of Pediatrics, Abant Izzet Baysal University School of Medicine, Bolu 14280, Turkey 
b
Department of Physiology, Yeditepe University School of Medicine, Istanbul 34755, Turkey 
c
Department of Pathology, Kirikkale University School of Medicine, Kirikkale 71100, Turkey 
d
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100, Turkey 
e
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Abant Izzet Baysal University School of Medicine, Bolu 14280, Turkey 
Received 2 October 2011; accepted 28 February 2012
KEYWORDS
Carcinogenesis tests;Infertility;Internet;Oxidative stress;Wireless technology;Testes
Abstract
 Objective:
 To investigate effects on rat testes of radiofrequency radiation emittedfrom indoor Wi-Fi Internet access devices using 802.11.g wireless standards.
Methods:
 Ten Wistar albino male rats were divided into experimental and control groups, withfive rats per group. Standard wireless gateways communicating at 2.437 GHz were used asradiofrequency wave sources. The experimental group was exposed to radiofrequency energyfor 24 h a day for 20 weeks. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the study. Intracardiac bloodwas sampled for serum 8-hydroxy-2
0
-deoxyguanosine levels. Testes were removed and exam-ined histologically and immunohistochemically. Testis tissues were analyzed for malondialde-hyde levels and prooxidant
e
antioxidant enzyme activities.
Results:
 We observed significant increases in serum 8-hydroxy-2
0
-deoxyguanosine levels and 8-hydroxyguanosine staining in the testes of the experimental group indicating DNA damage dueto exposure (
 p
<
0.05). We also found decreased levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidaseactivity in the experimental group, which may have been due to radiofrequency effects onenzyme activity (
 p
 <
 0.05).
* Corresponding author. Tel.:
 þ
90 374 2534656/3454,
 þ
905325998953; fax:
 þ
90 374 253 46 15.
E-mail addresses:
+
 MODEL
Please cite this article in press as: Atasoy HI, et al., Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes ofradiofrequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices, Journal of Pediatric Urology (2012), doi:10.1016/j.jpurol.2012.02.0151477-5131/$36
 ª
 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.jpurol.2012.02.015Journal of Pediatric Urology (2012)
e
7
 
Use of laptop computers connectedto internet through Wi-Fi decreaseshuman sperm motility and increasessperm DNA fragmentation
Conrado Avenda
~
no, M.S.,
a
Ariela Mata, M.S.,
a
C
esar A. Sanchez Sarmiento, M.D., Ph.D.,
a
and Gustavo F. Doncel, M.D., Ph.D.
b
a
NascentisMedicinaReproductiva,C
ordoba,Argentina;and
b
CONRAD,DepartmentofObstetricsandGynecology,EasternVirginiaMedicalSchool, Norfolk, Virginia
Objective:
 To evaluate the effects of laptop computers connected to local area networks wirelessly (Wi-Fi) on human spermatozoa.
Design:
 Prospective in vitro study.
Setting:
 Center for reproductive medicine.
Patient(s):
 Semen samples from 29 healthy donors.
Intervention(s):
 Motile sperm were selected by swim up. Each sperm suspension was divided into two aliquots. One sperm aliquot (experimental) fromeach patient was exposed to an internet-connected laptop by Wi-Fi for 4 hours, whereas the second aliquot (unexposed) was used as control, incubatedunder identical conditions without being exposed to the laptop.
Main Outcome Measure(s):
 Evaluation of sperm motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation.
Result(s):
 Donorspermsamples,mostlynormozoospermic,exposedexvivoduring4hourstoawirelessinternet-connectedlaptopshowedasigni
󿬁
cantdecreaseinprogressivespermmotilityandanincreaseinspermDNAfragmentation.Levelsofdeadspermshowednosigni
󿬁
cantdifferencesbetweenthetwo groups.
Conclusion(s):
 To our knowledge, this is the
󿬁
rst study to evaluate the direct impact of laptop use on human spermatozoa. Ex vivo exposure of humanspermatozoa to a wireless internet-connected laptop decreased motility and induced DNA fragmentation by a nonthermal effect. We speculate thatkeeping a laptop connected wirelessly to the internet on the lap near the testes may result in decreased male fertility. Further in vitro and in vivostudies are needed to prove this contention. (Fertil Steril
2012;
-
:
-
-
.
2012 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)
Key Words:
 Laptop computer, Wi-Fi, sperm quality, fertility, sperm DNA fragmentation
I
n recent years, the use of portablecomputers (laptops, connected tolocal area networks wirelessly, alsoknown as Wi-Fi) has increased dramat-ically. Laptops have become indispens-able devices in our daily life, offering
󿬂
exibility and mobility to users. Peopleusing Wi-Fi may be exposed to radiosignalsabsorbingsomeofthetransmit-ted energy in their bodies. Portablecomputers are commonly used on thelap (1
3), therefore exposing thegenital area to radio frequencelectromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) aswell as high temperatures (3, 4).Infertility is a common worldwidecondition that affects more than 70million couples of reproductive age(5). It has been suggested that male fer-tility has declined during the past sev-eral decades (6). Such decline has beenattributedtothedirectorindirectexpo-sure to certain environmental factorssuch as RF-EMW  (7).Extremely low frequency magnetic
󿬁
elds can initiate a number of biochemi-cal and physiological alterations inbiological systems of different species(8
12). Many of these effects have beenassociated with free-radical production(13, 14). Free radicals are causativefactors of oxidative damage of cellular structures and molecules such as lipids,proteins, and nucleic acids. Free radicalsreact with polyunsaturated fattacids in cell membranes promotinga process called lipid peroxidation. Inhuman spermatozoa the presence of unesteri
󿬁
ed polyunsaturated fatty acidsis causally associated with the inductionof reactive oxygen species (ROS)generation and lipid peroxidation (15).Damage may occur at the membranelevel, leading to immotility and celldeath,orattheDNAlevel.DNAintegritis essential to normal conception.Sperm DNA fragmentation has beenassociated with impaired fertilization,poor embryonic development, highrates of miscarriage, and increasedincidence of morbidity in the offspring,including childhood cancer  (16, 17). Ithas been proposed that genetic and
Received June 14, 2011; revised September 9, 2011; accepted October 11, 2011.C.A. has nothing to disclose. A.M. has nothing to disclose. C.A.S.S. has nothing to disclose. G.F.D. hasnothing to disclose.Reprintrequests:ConradoAvenda
~
no,M.S.,NascentisMedicinaReproductiva,Montevideo359,C
ordoba,C
ordoba X5000AXA, Argentina (E-mail: cavendano@nascentis.com or andrologiachubut@yahoo. com.ar).Fertility and Sterility® Vol.
-
, No.
-
,
-
2012 0015-0282/$36.00Copyright ©2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Published by Elsevier Inc.doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.10.012
VOL.
-
NO.
-
 / 
-
2012
 1
ANDROLOGY
 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
 
LARYNGOLOGY
Modulation of wireless (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative toxicityin laryngotracheal mucosa of rat by melatonin
Giray Aynali
 
Mustafa Naz
ı
rog˘lu
 
O ¨mer C¸elik
 
Mustafa Dog˘an
 
Murat Yar
ı
ktas¸
 
Hasan Yasan
Received: 21 January 2013/Accepted: 27 February 2013
 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013
Abstract
 It is well known that oxidative stress induceslarynx cancer, although antioxidants induce modulator roleon etiology of the cancer. It is well known that electro-magnetic radiation (EMR) induces oxidative stress in dif-ferent cell systems. The aim of this study was to investigatethe possible protective role of melatonin on oxidative stressinduced by Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) EMR in laryngotrachealmucosa of rat. For this purpose, 32 male rats were equallycategorized into four groups, namely controls, sham con-trols, EMR-exposed rats, EMR-exposed rats treated withmelatonin at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day. Except for the con-trols and sham controls, the animals were exposed to2.45 GHz radiation during 60 min/day for 28 days. Thelipid peroxidation levels were significantly (
 p
\
0.05)higher in the radiation-exposed groups than in the controland sham control groups. The lipid peroxidation level inthe irradiated animals treated with melatonin was signifi-cantly (
 p
\
0.01) lower than in those that were onlyexposed to Wi-Fi radiation. The activity of glutathioneperoxidase was lower in the irradiated-only group relativeto control and sham control groups but its activity wassignificantly (
 p
\
0.05) increased in the groups treatedwith melatonin. The reduced glutathione levels in themucosa of rat did not change in the four groups. There is anapparent protective effect of melatonin on the Wi-Fi-induced oxidative stress in the laryngotracheal mucosa of rats by inhibition of free radical formation and support of the glutathione peroxidase antioxidant system.
Keywords
 Melatonin
 
 Larynx
 
 Trachea
 
 Oxidativestress
 
 Wireless devices
Introduction
Wireless devices usages in industrial, scientific, medical,military and domestic applications, with potential leakage,of such radiation into the environment have increased byleaps and bounds in past decade [1]. From being a luxuryand limited to the wealthy, wireless devices especially near2.45 GHz is indispensable in daily lives [2]. However,every technological advance and its overuse possess pos-sible adverse effects [3].Exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) inducesdegenerative effects via two ways, namely directly orindirectly. Direct effects of EMR induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion,hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals. The ROS con-tribute to tissue and DNA damages [1]. Exposure to2.45 GHz EMR causes an increase in lipid peroxidationlevels and a decrease in the activity of enzymes that preventor protect against lipid peroxidation in tissues [4, 5]. The human cells have nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidantsystems against degenerative effects of ROS. Glutathione
G. Aynali
 
 M. Yar
ı
ktas¸
 
 H. YasanEar, Nose and Throat, Head and Neck Surgery Department,School of Medicine, Suleyman Demirel University,Isparta, TurkeyG. Aynali (
&
)Modernevler Mah. C¸evre Yolu 142. Cad. No. 7 I˙ksirApt D :7, 32200 Isparta, Turkeye-mail: giraynali@yahoo.com; giraynali@med.sdu.edu.trM. Naz
ı
rog˘lu
 
 O¨. C¸elik Biophysics Department, School of Medicine, SuleymanDemirel University, Isparta, TurkeyM. Dog˘anEar, Nose and Throat, Head and Neck Surgery Department,Isparta State Hospital, Isparta, Turkey
 1 3
Eur Arch OtorhinolaryngolDOI 10.1007/s00405-013-2425-0

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